Tourism The French define tourism as the art to satisfy the most diverse aspirations which invite man to move out of his daily universe. The Websters dictionary defines tourism as the guiding or managing of tourists; the promotion or encouragement of touring: the accommodation of tourists. Both definitions are apt for tourism. The private sector of tourism includes lodging, food, transportation, recreation facilities, attractions, travel agents, and tour operators. These in turn are supported by a variety of specialized services, such as research promotion and printing.
In the public sector, promotion of tourism on behalf of the state or communities is a major activity. In addition, there is the infrastructure of travel and tourism-such as roads, bridges, and utilities-and the public investment, federal, state in land and a wide range of recreational amenities and facilities. Tourism consists primarily of travel for pleasure purposes. It does not normally involve a large measure of physical exertion, nor does it involve acquisition of new skills. Tourism is oriented to the consumer rather than to the producer, and the economic impact of tourism comes primarily from multiple retail purchases by the tourists in a variety of establishments. The average household spends more on tourism as its real income increase (The National Tourism Resources Review, 1976).
The City as a Tourist Resource The Citys appeal is based on eight general categories of attractions: Business opportunities, both work and personal; recreation; cultural / educational facilities; contact with people; amusement and entertainment; special events; shops; and atmosphere. The pull of these attractions is in turn affected by five variables; reputation, cost overall quality of the urban environment (of which big-city problems, particularly crime, congestion and inconvenience are a part) locations and climate. The strength of a cit s appeal depends on a combination of some or all of these factors, measured against the allure of other cities or alternative destinations. The broader the range of attractions and the more positive the other variables in reinforcing them, the larger and more stable will be the scope of a citys tourist business. For instance, a City like Miami Beach which offers mainly recreational opportunities which depend on climate for their use appeals primarily to discretionary market, and that only at those times of the year when unfavorable weather elsewhere makes Florida desirable. Most visitors to Miami Beach come from the eastern half of the country; similar resorts on the West Coast compete successfully for the western market.
Much of a visitors decision is based on his expectations of the city and whether or not it is likely to fulfill them. But how are those expectations formed Urban Attractions: Most tourists attractions are inherent to the city; they exist because of demands and support from local people, combined with the willingness of governmental and other organizations to subsidize certain amenities when necessary. The diversity and quantity of attractions relate closely to the makeup and size of resident population, the citys historic past, and its national and international standing. Most attractions are not geared specifically to the visitor, with some obvious exceptions. For example, the St. Louis Arch was built expressly as a unique tourist attraction, and at the same time it serves as a symbol of the citys historic past and present role as a gateway to the West.
Atlanta is one of the most successful cases of a non tourist city developing facilities to attract visitors. Concerned about the future of their city, Atlantas decided about 15 years ago to take advantage of their location at the center of the fast developing southeastern region of the country. Through extensive redevelopment and aggressive promotion, they launched Atlanta as a business, communications and entertainment heart of the area, until now it has a reputation of a progressive, Dynamic City with lots to offer for everyone. Atlantas recognize that tourism is a viable urban resource. Much of the redevelopment of the city was carried out with the tourism in mind. For example, the unusual Regency Hyatt Hotel was designed not just as a hotel, but as an attraction in and of itself.
The Atlanta Underground was a historic but decaying section of the city that was rebuilt in large part to provide visitors with an attractive center for diverse day 0 and night time activities. Atmosphere is also regarded as an attraction because a city with good atmosphere will draw tourists. Atmosphere is an intangible quality that relates to such characteristics as charm or quaintness, liveliness and excitement, friendliness and warmth, good vibes and being with it. Visitors react to it subconsciously it is a feeling, which the city imparts. Every city has its own intrinsic atmosphere, which may act as a positive or negative force. However, atmosphere can be enhanced or changed by promotion and development activities.
The strength of appeal of any attraction is closely related to quality. If an attraction has a desirable uniqueness, its appeal may be relatively absolute. If it is one of a kind and can not be missed (such as the White House or Congress). Elements involved in quality are attractiveness, convenience and standards of maintenance. Quality can be used as a tool in promoting tourism along certain desirable lines. The final constraint in any development or promotion of a city and its attractions is the tourist himself.
Attractions are meaningless if the tourist does not respond favorably towards them. His preferences and preoccupations are ultimately the factor on which promoters must concentrate. Quality and urban environment Pollution, decay filth, decay coldness, confusion crime, cost, stress, ugliness Cities reflect the heights of human aspiration and the depths of human weakness. They are every extreme of success and failure, of beauty and ugliness, of wealth and poverty, of creativity and mediocrity. All that is found in a city, and all that happens in one, together form a living environment. It is composed of people, buildings, attitudes, work problems, etc.
It is this total atmosphere that confronts a tourist when he thinks of visiting a city. Is the environment desirable The total tourist is most affected by total environment in all its aspects, positive and negative, than any other group. Because the tourist has freedom of choice and a wider range of wants and needs with personal preferences, he will weigh more variables in selecting his destination. (Report of the National Tourism Resources Review Commission, 1993).
Bibliography References Destination USA Volume 3 Report of the National Tourism Resources Review Commission June, 1976 Destination USA Volume 5 Report of the National Tourism Resources Review Commission 1973 References Destination USA Volume 3 Report of the National Tourism Resources Review Commission June, 1976 Destination USA Volume 5 Report of the National Tourism Resources Review Commission 1973 (Report of the National Tourism Resources Review Commission, 1993).