Pharoah Djoseer's step pyramid in Saqquara, the first pyramid in ancient Egypt, was built in about 2650 B. C. The 3 Great Pyramids of Giza were constructed about 2600 B. C. Ancient Egyptians developed one of the earliest civilizations on earth. The Great Sphinx at Giza is located near the 3 great Pyramids.

The Great Sphinx's head is six stories high, and its lion's body is four -fifths as long as a football field. The Sphinx has been badly damaged by wind, sand storms, rain, and pollution. Its nose is completely gone. Workers are now giving it a "facelift " by restoring crumbling stones.

Tutankhamen's, gold mask was found in his tomb. King Tut ruled in the 1300's B. C. He died when he was about 18 years old. Hatsshpsut was the daughter of Thutmose I and the wife of Thutmose II. When her husband died, his son and successor, Thutmose III, was still a child.

Hatshepsut was expected to rule in the boy's place until he grew up, but she wanted more. She had herself crowed as the pharaoh and ruled for twenty-two years. The temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel features four immense statues of the pharaoh. ANCIENT EGYPT Muhammad Hosni Mubarak became president of Egypt after the assassination of Anwar Sadat in 1981. In Cairo today, high-rise buildings flank the Nile. Cairo is Africa's largest city and the largest Arab city in the world.

More than 15 million people live in the Cairo metropolitan area. Irrigation allows Egyptian farmers to grow crops throughout the year. The shadoof, or water sweep, is a 4, 000-year-old method of drawing water from a river. Along pole with a weight on one end is mounted on the bank. At the other end is a goatskin bag or bucket, which is lowered int the water, then swung onto the shore.

Residents of the village Deir el-Gharbi display their jugs made of Western Desert clay. Egyptian workers sort through dates by hand. Egypt is the world's top producer of dates. Fishing on the Nile is a culture of its own. Fishing families live and work on their boats. Wild cats were first domesticated, or tamed as pets, in Egypt.

The cat was a sacred animal in ancient Egypt. Ibex are wild mountain goats found on the rocky slopes in the Sinai. A camel Caravan cross the desert of Egypt carrying Goods to be sold at bazaars. Camels can go for days or week without water.

The beautiful water hyacinth grows quickly and Obstructs canals. Pigeon Houses Scattered around Egypt's countryside are tall, rounded, earthen towers full of holes. These strange structures are pigeon always return to nest in the place where they hatched. When a pigeon house's holes are filled with nesting birds, villagers are assured of a steady supply of tasty pigeon meat, year after year.

Also, the pigeon droppings make good fertilizer for crops. EGYPT TODAY PLANTS AND ANIMALS There are many styles of Muslim dress. These Muslim girls are wearing long colorful dresses and head scarves of colorful material. EGYPT Capital: Cairo Area: 386, 662 square miles, as large as Texas and New Mexico Population: 62 million Religions: Islam is the official religion. Its followers are Muslim. 6% are Coptic Christians, 1% are other Christian denominations.

Languages: Official language is Arabic. Government: Republic with one legislative house. Chief of State: President Head of Government: Prime Minister Products: The principal imports of Egypt are machinery and transportation equipment, iron, steel, and paper, cereals and chemicals. The exports are petroleum products, textile yarn and fabrics, vegetables and fruits, clothing and accessories, and alum- in um products.

Physical Features: Western Desert and Eastern Desert, Nile River and Delta, 5 important oases, Lake Nasser, Sinai Peninsula, and Qantara Depression Major Cities: Cairo (6, 800, 000), Alexandria (3, 380, 000), Giza (22, 144, 000), Shou bra al-Khe ima (834, 000), and Port Said (460, 000). Monetary Unit: One Egyptian pound () equals 100 piasters. Exchange rate: US$1 = 3. 33. Major attractions: The Great Pyramids and the Sphinx at Giza, Luxor Temple and Museum, Temple of Karnak, Valley of Kings at Luxor, Aswan High Dam, Lake Nasser at Aswan, Temple of Ramses II, Suez Canal and beaches at Port Said, Ismailia. Culture: The Egyptian Museum in Cairo contains displays from prehistoric times to the sixth century.

There are many other museums in Egypt, including a post office museum, a railroad museum, a cotton museum, and religious museums. Cairo's Opera House presents music and dance by Arabic artists and the Orchestra for Arabic Music often performs there. The nation has thirteen major universities and dozens of teachers' colleges. BIBLIOGRAPHY Cross, Wilbur. Enchantment of the World: Egypt. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1982.

"Egypt." Encarta. 1997. Feinstein, Stephen C. Egypt in Pictures. New York: Lerner Publications Co. , 1988.

Heinrich's, Ann. Enchantment of the World: Egypt. New York: Grolier Publications, 1997. Miller, Peter. "Riddle of the Pyramid Boats." National Geographic, Vol. 173 No.

4: April, 1988. Mirepoix, Camille. Egypt in Pictures. NewYork: Sterling Publish- ing Co. , 1974. Theroux, Peter.

"Clamorous Heart of Egypt." National Geographic, Vol. 183 No. 4: April, 1993. Weeks, Kent R.

"Valley of the Kings." National Geographic, Vol. 194 No. 3: September, 1998.