Vandals take control of Carthage, North Africa problematic as used to feed population of Rome test, could Aetius stop fragmentation or just slow it down, 441, East and West force ready to go, Huns change position and stops epeidtion. 440 apotheosis of Hunnic power Attila and Be lda centralisation and development now not just aiding Romans but launch invasions across the Danube. RESULTS: Vandals given richest provinces in Roman Empire, Aetius legislation shows signs of financi a crisis. Direct Hunnic threat not as important a problem of when they left never came close to defeating either half of the Empire out right.

Axillas death 453 civil war, groups subject to Huns reassert their independence, by late 460 s remnants of Attilas Huns seeking asylum in Eastern Empire, collapse Hunnic power bought final crisis for the Roman Empire in Western Europe. Hunnic military power could no longer be used to enforce a blanket policy of military containment towards immigrants already established in Western Europe. Could the Romans face suing the Huns, or afford them NOT USED after Aetius death changes fundamentals of the political game. Players of previous century still exist: eastern Empire, Roman Armies, senators: after 450 add major autonomous Barbarian group, esp. Goths and Burgundians and Vandals Huns used previously to contain these groups and urb their political influence with Hunnic power gone only choice was to include some or all of them in western Empires body politic post 454.

Regime of A vitus gets backing from Goths first regimes no longer independent of immigrant groups, direct result of the Huns disappearance. Immigrant groups want some kind of oak back involvement in government and the empire, Burgundian Kings take Roman titles Attraction of the empire t Barbarian leaders military might an overall wealth rewards given to new allies after 454, money or land the basis of power, shrunk an already diminishing base Gaul, Spain and Britain away from Imperial control. Too many groups squabbling over shrinking financial base always enough groups in he cold, after division of spoils, to undermine prevailing political config, more and more gifts with each leader concentration on internal relations leads to less resources for the defence from other, increasingly independent and organised tribes Franks in the north for example. Two most successful rulers Major ian 457 62 a and Anthem ius 467 72 realised either need to reduce number of political players or increase central resources, thus we see making reconquest Vandal Africa major priority, wealth from richest lands and reduction if the number of players. Victory would have extended life of the Empire, support from Gallic aristocracies, - idea of empire grew meaningless as number of groups grew, Franks more powerful, and resources declined. 460 s and 470 s each group realising that Empire no longer prize worth fighting for Roman state in Western Europe now an anachronism.

Euric Visigoth launches series of wars on Spain as see no chance Western Empire regaining ground 475 Gallo-Romans transfer allegiance toi Euric at same time 474 Eastern Empire gives up on the West by signing peace with Vandals. THREE MAIN POINTS OF HEATHERS ARGUMENTS 376 and 405-8 points of single crisis, emergence Hunnic power fringes of Europe, unity and coherence to 35 years of instability along frontiers. 65 yrs to Romulus Augustus overthrow slow working-out political consequences of invasions, loss territory, los of revenue, loss of power, landowners see whose really in charge Attilas glory no more than a sideshow in the western collapse, other major effect is disappearance of assistance in 453 West bereft of military assistance. Sacred Rhetoric internal, social, psychological factors explaining imperial collapse, balance of power broking by progressive enfeeblement of Roman frontier power Not mono causal were internal problems if sufficiently large and wealthy population would have fended off Hunnic problems appearance barbarian groups within empire opened up pre-existing fault between imperial centre and Roman and-owning elite arrival Barbarian powers undermines centres ability to reward and constrain loyalty. local landowners feud new ways to guarantee elite status.