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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Child Observation - 1410 words
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Running Head: Final ProjectFinal Project/Research PaperKimberlyIntroduction to Curriculum/ProgramsECED 105Professor There are many different areas that one must focus on as they are attempting to create a developmentally appropriate curriculum for young children. All of these aspects are equally important to the learning process. Therefore, it is imperative that we as teachers take the process of planning this curriculum very seriously. Not only is it important that we understand the basic guidelines for a lesson plan, we also need to be knowledgeable of the developmental and learning theories as well. These theories will help us to understand the way a child learns mentally and physically.
Once we fully understand the concepts of early education we can then take them to the classroom and apply them to our students. Back in the 1900's a woman by the name of Patty Hill created a curriculum for kindergarten students in the United States. She also founded the laboratory school at Columbia University Teacher's College; this was the beginning of the use of curriculum in early childhood education. Curriculum was created as an unbiased, cultured, community and parent approved way of teaching. The first national goal was to have every American child ready to start school and learn by the year 2000
Curriculum is a basic guide of implementing cognitive, physical, social, emotional, language and developmental learning skills. When using this method of teaching, the area we are trying to focus on is clear, it is important that all areas receive equal time. If our curriculum is well written out, it will reflect the philosophy and goals of what we are trying to accomplish for that school year. The creation of curriculum was invented so that young children would be able to benefit from it. If you look up the definition of curriculum in Early Education Curriculum, a textbook written by Hilda L. Jackman, it will read; a multileveled process that encompasses what happens in an early education classroom each day.. The word multileveled is a perfect word to explain developmentally appropriate curriculum.
When a teacher puts together a curriculum it is kind of like a balancing act. We have to make the work that the children do challenging yet not to simple. We must push our children to reach for that little extra step in their cognitive thinking. We must try to get them to succeed just a little past their limit, but not too far, so that the goal is still obtainable. On the other hand, the curriculum must not be too easy due to the fact that children will get bored if they are not challenged.
This means that the curriculum must be a perfect measure in order for the children to thrive. All children develop their skills on their own time table. So, in a room of three year old children not all of them will be at the same developmental level. As teachers we must be able to create a curriculum that encompasses the entire classroom. This means we have to allow room for flexibility and creativity.
We must figure out a way to modify certain programs so that all of our children, even those that don't learn as rapidly, can experience success. Another significant aspect in creating a developmentally appropriate curriculum for a young child is being able to put out the right amount and type of supplies in the children's learning areas. For instance, putting out paper, glue and scissors for an art project that only requires cutting and pasting would be more productive than bombarding the child with unnecessary supplies such as paint, brushes, string and glitter. Overwhelming them with too many options only confuses the student which in turn, blocks their creativity. It is all about knowing our students, we have to be able to teach them and provide the appropriate things they will need for that point in their lives.
It will benefit all teachers to familiarize themselves with the many developmental theories. A developmental theory is the belief of how a child grows and learns. Catron and Allen (2003) stated that these beliefs guide our views of teaching in supporting children as learners. Erik Erikson has a psychosocial theory; this is the interaction between the person's social emotional state and their interpersonal environment. He believes that within the first year of life, an infant learns how to trust.
It is crucial that the infant's needs are met. In the second year of life, a child is demonstrating self control and independence. We can reinforce this concept by accepting and encouraging them. Between the third and the fifth year of life, a child is eager to learn and is very curious about their environment. Their motor skills are rapidly developing so that they can now run, hop and also ride a tricycle.
At the ages six through eleven, a child is learning problem solving and critical thinking. They are learning how to cooperate with others and love a challenge. Jean Piaget came up with the theory of cognitive development, which is basically the way that a child learns and thinks. Spodek and Saracho (1994) quoted one of Piaget's articles that stated a child's system of thought develops through a series of stages, common to all children of all cultures. Piaget's theory is broken down into four stages; Sensorimotor stage, Preoperational stage, Concrete Operational stage and Formal Operations stage. The first stage, Sensorimotor, is applied from birth to the age of two.
Infants use their sensory systems and reflexes, in time the child's reflex behavior will change into new behavior. In the second stage, Preoperational, which covers the ages from two to seven years, a child is egocentric. This means that the child thinks about the world in realization only to themselves. Children's language and intellectual skills begins blending together at this stage. Concrete Operational, the third stage, deals with the ages of seven to twelve. At this stage, children begin to think problems through, grasp the concept of numbers and learn better by sight and being able to handle objects.
It is more beneficial for the child to see the objects in front of them and have them within reach. The last stage is Formal Operational, which covers from twelve years of age up until adulthood. At this stage of life, a person has the ability to think ahead and hypothesize. They can also think from simple terms to complex terms, then to concrete and finally to abstract terms. Socioculture theory was developed by a man named Lev Vygotsky, who believes that a child's culture and family have a huge affect on their learning development.
Vygotsky feels that every person that interacts with a child has a significant influence on their intellectual development. Lev created the zone of proximal development, which is basically the theory that states a child can push their limits of intelligence. He finds that they can do this by being in an environment with someone of greater expertise. He is also a firm believer of the fact that children working in small groups will help them to problem solve. These small groups give them the opportunity to collaborate their ideas together and master many skills.Howard Garner came up with the theory of multiple intelligence.
In stating this theory, he feels that a child is not born with a certain amount of knowledge, but that a person's intelligence can improve throughout their lifetime. He has come up with eight stages of intelligence, all which are equally valuable and viable, not one intelligence is more significant than the other. These stages begin with verbal which deals with an infant babbling to a complete language. Logical, it starts with the ability to categorize and use number patterns all the way to math, science and real life situations. Next comes musical, which deals with singing, listening, sound awareness and musical instrument appreciation. Visual is an infant's ability to discriminate among faces to visual/spatial abilities.
This helps the child to design, draw and also create things. The next stage is bodily, it starts from an infant being able to grasp things and transforms to the child being able to run, jump and move. Interpersonal intelligence is the sixth stage, it deals with the ability to bond and have meaningful relationships with others outside of the family. Intrapersonal intelligence is the act of realizing that you are your own separate person with your own feelings and strengths. The last stage is Naturalist intelligence which is simp ...
Research paper and essay writing, free essay topics, sample works Child Observation
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