Social Study Guide Due Wednesday, Jan 19/05 A. ) Definitions: 1. ) Dimension - is any part of and object or event that can be measured. 2.

) Absolute time - is the time measured in precise periods, dates or times. 3. ) Relative time - is the time measured in relation to other things. 4.

) Cyclical time - is a record of natural cycles. 5. ) Linear time - is a record of events in sequence from past to the present. 6. ) Equinox - is the period when day and night are the same length. 7.

) Solstice - is when the sun is highest in the sky, either in the north or south. Summer solstice is the longest day of the year, and winter solstice is the shortest. 8. ) Data - means facts or information.

People use data as a basis for drawing conclusions about the topic or theme they are studying. 9. ) Prehistory - refers to events that happened before written records. 10. ) Archaeology - is the study of the remains of human behaviour in the past. It usually involves excavating sites where such remains including artifacts and eco facts, can be found.

11. ) Fossils - are the remains of plants or animals that have been preserved over centuries in the strata or layers. 12. ) Theory - is a system of ideas to explain how a certain situation or event might have came about. 13.

) Evolution - is the development of species (that is, a group of animals or plants) Through different stages over many generations. 14. ) Domesticate - a wild animal is to bring it under human control. 15. ) Agriculture - is the production of food by growing crops and raising animals.

16. ) Sedentary - means remaining in one place. 17. ) Technology - refers o both tools and know how. Tools allow human to do more know-how is the ability to solve problems systematically. 18.

) Surplus - of food is an amount that is left over after a group has used what they need. 19. ) City-State - is an independent or self governing state. It is made up of a city, and the surrounding area controlled by it.

Sumerian city state often fought each other for control of Mesopotamia. 20. ) Anthropologists - study humans, especially their evolution societies and customs. 21. ) Democracy - comes from the ancient Greeks. Demos is a Greek word for "people." in a democracy the people have the power to elect the representatives who will govern them.

22. ) Elite - is a small group of people considered to be wiser or more successful than the majority. As a result, they often have more power. 23. ) Oligarchy - is a form of government in which is held by only a few rulers. 24.

) Assimilation - occurs when some aspects of the culture of one group are absorbed or adopted by another culture. 25. ) Republic - power is held by citizens who are entitled to a vote. A republic may be made up of a group of member states, and is usually headed by a president.

26. ) Empire - is a group of states or territories govern by an emperor or emprise. 27. ) Aristocracy - is a privileged upper class within a society. Aristocrat usually inherit there social position or right to govern from parents. 28.

) Artifacts - are any object with features that have been made by human activity. 29. ) Eco facts - the remains that were not made by humans; but still provide some information that helps to understand people of the past. 30. ) Dating - determine the age of an object. 31.

) Absolute dating - determine the age of an object quite precisely. 32. ) Relative dating method - determine whether an object is older or younger than some objects whose age is already known. 33.

) Radio carbon dating method - example of absolute dating technique used to measure amount of the element carbon in an object that was living, most useful method. 34. ) inference - the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises know or assumed to be true. The of reasoning from factual knowledge or evidence.

35. ) dendrochronology dating method - dating of trees by counting the rings in the trunk. Combing dendrochronology and radio carbon, accurately dating back to 4500 b. c.

36. ) oral history - traditions provide evidence of the development of civilization in the recent past. 37. ) written history - is recorded in a variety of languages and symbols on a variety of materials (cave walls, stone, and parchment). 38. ) civilization - comes from Latin word "civ is" meaning "inhabitant of city." 39.

) vernal equinox - The beginning of spring, March 21. 40. ) summer solstice - The beginning of summer, June 21. 41. ) autumn solstice - The beginning of fall, September 23. 42.

) winter solstice - The beginning of winter, December 22. 43. ) creationist - The belief a god or goddess named deity controlled the universe and everything. Deity created humans fully developed, immortal souls, abilities to communicate, and physically and emotionally capacities. 44. ) evolutionist - holds modern human evolved from other life forms took over.

B) Explanations of topics 1. ) Time and what it means. Time has many meanings all of the present, past, and future take together, or it can refer to only part of that span. Time refers to a measurable period in which people, actions or conditions exist.

Describe time in absolute time, relative time, and dimensions. 2. ) Development of time. The earliest know calendar was 6000 years ago, sundials first used 3000 years ago, 700 years ago first mechanical clock. We have a year that is made up of 365 days, which is broken down into days, months, weeks.

Weeks make up a calendar. A calendar is a tool to measure the seasons. An example of development of time that is broken down is a clock which divides the day into hours. 3. ) How time and culture work hand in hand. A little bit about why time and culture work hand in hand is because we humans have organized and coordinated our activities better, by dividing time.

Time also tells you how long some one lived or how long that event lasted. Many cultures don't divide time into past, present, future, they don't have written records that they pass through spoken languages from generation to generation. 4. ) Prehistory Prehistory has some written records that date back to 4500 years ago, Saskatchewan's earliest record from 200 years ago, visuals from aboriginal people from thousands of years ago.

5. ) History Homo Habilis-lived 2 million years ago-had a larger brain than earlier hominids-made tools from chipped stone-gathered plants and fruits-scavenged for meat Homo Erectus-lived 1. 5 million years ago-had a larger brain than Homo -had improved communication skills-first human to adapt to cool climate-hunted in groups for large animals-made stone hand axe and chopper Homo Sapiens-lived 300 thousand years ago- had much larger brain than Homo erectus-made stone spear heads-had memory, religion and language Homo Sapiens Sapiens (Modern humans) -developed 40 thousand years ago -more widespread than earlier hominids; lived in Western as well as Eastern hemisphere-lived in larger groups-hunted cooperatively 6. ) Inferencing - Form Agricultural Findings There was not any agriculture going on in the north, they think it was do to environmental changes. So people in the north used the hunting and gathering method. 7.

) Hunting & Gathering what it brought about in terms of civilization. Hunters and Gathers used to live in groups about 25 people now today we live in huge cities or towns. They made there own clothes and fashioned tools, weapons, and implements out of stone. Making there own clothes gave society the idea to make clothes in large quantities. They had a basic language. They celebrated ceremonies like birth, death, and marriage like us, how we go to church and school to learn new things.

8. ) Beginning of Civilization The agriculture farmers produce an easier surplus than the hunter and gathers could meaning that there is more food for population to grow and town, villages, and cities to grow also. Having a surplus means that people could have other occupations other than hunting and gathering they could go into metallurgy (metal work). Early civilizations traded with other countries using there surplus to get what they need or want. First form of writing steps into a newer from of communication, but not all forms of civilizations had metallurgy and writing. But all had some means of recording and transmitting knowledge..