Title to Louis three things: churches would be assailed by wicked men, honorees wrongly given or withdrawn dispute in royal family basis Charlemagnes power not necessarily solution for successor. Still really a conglomeration of kingdoms, sun kingdoms Provence, Septimania, Burgundy Louis kept tradition installs 14 yr old son Pippin to Aquitaine and Lothar to Bavaria Italy not his as C given to eldest son Pippin, dies 810 then given to illegitimate son Bernard churchmen calling for legitimacy in succession trouble. Louis gets rid of Charlemagnes old guard, uses levers of patronage to put in his own entourage. Upon death Louis, like division of father, kingdom to one son sub kingdoms still set up. Luis youngest son Louis given Bavaria Lothar made co-emperor Lothar and factions gained support at court, imperial titles and papal involvement if 816 thought going to rule Italy Bernard felt threatened and rebelled other repercussions as royal family war focuses for other rivalries in the regions. Bernard killed and harsh persecution supports in Lombardy, Louis also tonsures half brothers Lothar becomes ascendant at court Louis marries Judith to secure support east of the Rhine weakens position son by first marriage so Lothar asks for own regnum Neustria and Loire valley rich, fertile, monasteries, count ships etc.

Lothar sought marriage 821 and went for Hugh daughter Ermengard. 822 reconciliation rebels 818 Bernard forgiven and half brothers back into the fold Lothar sent to rule Italy and Pippin of Aquitiane married and despatched to the west. Louis showed concern for overall control in the West foolish attempt in Spain led to downfall of Hugh and Matfrid Bernard and Odo replace the, . Roots Louis crisis in West interest Louis an sons collided Lothar after Neustria, Pippin resentful fathers interferences coincide factional conflict magnates and in 830 High and Matfrid eek revenge via rebellion Pippin invited in to join the rebellion Judith bears Charles the Bald as son Louis in 823 Lothar as special protector 0 create regnum for Charles in 829 offends Lothar as given Alemanni a, Alsace, chur and Burgundy lands Lothar wanted as strategic corridor Francia and Italy Lothar bitter Judith and Bernard influence at court his lack of influence in Francia. Rebels attacked by Louis with help of Louis of Bavaria stand firm pre cursor as in 831 Pippin rude back to Aquitaine support with Bernard Louis deprives Pippin of Aquitaine and gave it to Charles Pippin and brothers with Pope Gregory IV depose Louis Pippin changes mind and marches from Aqutiainee Lothar out manoeuvred and withdraws Lothar then fights Louis men Louis had many men killed but restores control.

Louis sent Lothar, Hugh and Matfrid to italy bishops used to stabilise control. Louis determined to secure succession 837, 38 lands to Charles Pippin dies 838 disinherits Aquitaine and to Charles resentment but Charles and Judith struggle on Louis dies 840 when trying to fight off Louis the German in Rhineland. Weakened by 833 Lack of government documents to 840 say yes, but neighbours still respected in and control of minting 0 scored well fathers three criteria protested against spoliations of the church regna of Italy and Aquitaine, distributed honors well avoiding rebels, imposed will in family politics disinheriting grandsons, ruthless suppression Louis the German keeping Lothar in Italy West where conflicts 833-4 won where he wanted Charles to inherit Charles and uis pitted against Lother and Pippin II in 841 importance Star bourg Oaths before discussing terms when King fought self-interested aristocrats seldom certain how to pursue their interests successfully Nilthard sometimes treacheorus, loyalty to deaths prod emperor to peace settlement 843 Treaty of Verdun Lothar, Louis and Charles trade off competing interests those Kings and their men. Three way split Frankish heartlands, abandon model of 817 Lother and father continuing quest imperial unity Lothar tried to make good his rights as family head and protector emperor wide church death 855 son Louis II maintain imperia tradition. Three kingdoms Lothar split his into 3 upon death, north of Alps redivided 869 absorbed into Charles and Louis I 843 879 series ephemeral maps of the Carolingian regna further revisions 888. Borders drawn at Verdun aristocratic interest as well as wealth everyone wanted Frankish heartlands and sued aristocratic influence in bits not theirs.

844 Charles unexpected defeat in absence in Aquitaine cause Pippin II new life Lothar gave support 845 and 848 Pippin II issued coins and charters Charles work hard to defeat him again -relations with Lothar improve as try for succession of son threatened by Louis the Germans son Louis the Younger in 854 and Louis the German in 858. Chalres trying to divide own kingdom with Luis given Neustria and Charles given Aquitaine 860 s elder sons rebelled and Chalres crushed them greater auto my was the aim as Charles held them on a tight reign no charters or coins Charles of Aquitiane died 866 867 Louis the Stammerer send to Aquitaine Room for more improvement in Lothar Italy son Louis UU no child and Lothar died un divorced 869 Charles made a grab and took Aachen in 869 but Louis recovered 870 Lother uncles divided up kingdom but Charles did not get Aachen and bits he did get provoked Carol man rebellion to get own kingdom Carloman tries for royal power Frankish heartlands using some of Charles aristocratic support Louis the German threatens to intervene Charles puts down Carloman ferociously, then supported Louis the Germans son in rebellion After 873 Louis the Stammerer the only son left, made son marry another woman for personal kin support Boso brother in law ruthless paterfamilias. 875 Louis II of Italy died crowned emperor Xmas Day 875 Louis the German and son Louis the Younger ravish Francia, not for territorial gain, but for plunder, aristocratic disturbance and to get Charles out of Italy where Louis hoped to install his eldest son Karmann. Gave Italy to Boso as Viceroy and went to Frac nia restore region 876 Louis the German dies Charles moves not to disinherit support but acquire lands west of Rhine acquired against Lothar in 843 Chalres lost at Ander nach but did not lose territory lost men, treasure and equipment, Aachen beyond his reach. 877 resiliently keeps going into Italy Louis the Stammerer in charge Francia Boso rebels for Charles, but Francia based kingdom died 877 on way back.