Verdun not seen as final oaths of allegiance but moreover showing mistrust. ideology of imperium Christian um survived in weakened form one empire under collective rule of three brothers there were some cases of cooperation Kings often met to plan against the other Aquitainians invite Louis the German to seed son Louis the Younger to rule over them 855 and 877 Carolingian politics dominated by attempts Lothar remain brothers Charles the Bald and Louis the German to inherit nephews kingdoms pattern emerging of Louis the German siding with Lothar Is sons against aggressive Charles the Bald. Louis the German gives his three sons power before he dies Carloman, Louis the Younger and Charles the Fat upon Louis death kingdom split between the two Charles the Bald dies a year later in 877 and Lothar II of Italy same period Western unstable C the B follower L the Stammerer dies shortly afterward C the B and his two sons Louis and Carloman also die soon Louis the Younger invades West Francia and gets land lost in Lotharingia Charles the Fat takes Italy brothers Carloman and louis die off e laving Charles the Fat as only adult legitimate Carolingian; having acquired Italy, inherited remainder East Francia and took kingship in West Francia. 843 to 884 mistrust, intrigue and treachery structural characteristics of the Frankish empire: no established precedence of sons over brothers, especially if sons minors or young sons right to inherit but frequency of nephew or brothers taking lnd shows brothers important as well. Why go for brothers land Not just justice the ninth century inheritance rivalled external conquest and warfare as way to increase power and satisfy following. Italy had many problems Arabs and Popes but lofty, acceptable to take, was so big that in 875 that C th B, and Louis the Germans sons all have a go.

Imperial aristocracy with kindred and contacts in different kingdoms could look elsewhere for help so kings careful not often powerful people with other links. Paradoxically existence supra-regional aristocracy and an empire with different kingdoms that led to a re gionalisation of this aristocracy. Fluidity of aristocracy and great purges by different Kings, notably in the East after treaty of Coblenz in 600 moves west notably, number of regnal aristocracies replaced an imperial aristocracy aristocracies coagulated in the different kingdoms and this meant an increasing identification with a territory in the East this coincided with the split between Louis the Germans brothers leading to the three regional aristocracies. Capable of collective action increasingly consent of leading men needed for inheritance, or they could invite a Carolingian to lead them.