Fred L. Pincus, author of "From Individual to Structural Discrimination", is arguing that discrimination is still present among many individual and institutions. The reason why it is not unlawful, according to Pincus, is because the discrimination is so subtle and in some cases it is not done intentionally. I will discuss why Pincus criticizes the "good business" argument for discrimination against predominantly African American neighborhoods. In closing I will present my argument against Pincus. The "good business" argument is the argument the banks use to justify their reluctance to grant loans to African Americans and insurance companies use it to justify their higher rates for African American.

This argument, according to Pincus, is due to structural discrimination. The banks and insurance companies are not necessarily targeting African American, but the policies that the institution follows does discriminate between black and white people. The case is different for banks than for insurance companies. I will analyze each separately before refuting Pincus. In the case of banks, the quantity and quality of the loan is determined by the income of the individual as well as their collateral. Pincus argues that because African American have lower income, on average, than white people the loans granted to African American is also lower...

Therefore, the bands seemingly race-neutral policy actually discriminates against African American actually discriminates against African American. The case of insurance companies is not too much different in that, here too, the policies are intended to be race-neutral. Pincus points out that in high crime neighborhoods the insurance rates are higher. Consequently, the high crime neighborhoods are predominantly African Americans and therefore the policy is again discriminatory. Not only do some insurance companies have this structural discrimination, there is also known institutional discrimination. Pincus claims that "insurance companies have been known to charge higher rates in black communities than in white ones, even after controlling for crime" (Pincus, From Individual to Structural Discrimination", 590).

This institutional discrimination leads into my argument which I will now present. As far as institutional discrimination goes, I am so persuaded by Pincus that I would march with him right now into the State Farm office and bark up their tree all day, but I have a problem where structural discrimination occurs. I find that banks and insurance policies blind. The African American are most effected by these policies is unfortunate, in that same high crime is surely paying the same insurance rates and probably doesn't have any better luck getting a loan either. If insurance companies discriminate against African American in high crime against males, age 16-25, who drive a Porsche too As a matter of fact they do; it is policy, it is policy; it is called a high risk category. I do not believe Pincus has a good argument here for structural discrimination against African Americans..