This paper looks at hate crimes as a projection of community theory regarding the media's role in shaping public thought and how society views the crimes as whites against nonwhites event. Since there is little reliable data regarding hate crimes, interracial homicides were used to generate statistics on this study. The study concludes that nonwhite on white crimes are more common than white on nonwhite, and to some extent, nonwhite on nonwhite. Homicide (is? ) perpetrated by nonwhite against white.
The terms "hate violence and hate crimes" first appeared in the Final Report of the Attorney General's Commission on Racial, Ethnic, Religious and Minority Violence issued in April 1986. It defined hate violence to be any act of intimidation, harassment, physical force or threat of physical force directed against any person or their property or advocate.
(Run-on sentence) It is motivated either in whole or in part by hostility to their real or perceived race, ethnic background, religious belief, sex, age, disability, or sexual orientation, with the intention of causing fear or intimidation or to deter the deterrence of free exercise or enjoyment of any rights or privileges secured by the Constitution whether or not performed under color of law. (web) There is much historical evidence showing such violence is perpetrated by whites against non-whites. History has played a major role in influencing our way of thinking when it comes to hate crimes. Historical documents show that European people have treated numerous people of differing races cruelly.
During the era of the Golden Triangle, when the slavery trade reached its peak, countless African people died en route to the new world, living in the condition of untold misery. The colonists' mistreatment of indigenous people in the New World and Australia where many died through diseases and war. As a result, some tribes ceased to exist. Even the Chinese and Indian cultures, with their advanced civilizations, were unable to ward off European influences. It is little known that other civilizations and races are equally guilty of this racially based violence and crime. For example, Genghis Khan invaded countless nations, plundering and committing nasty deeds to wipe out certain races to subject them underneath his control.
The Japanese Imperialist occupation forces reputation for cruelty was infamous. In many cases, their deeds even exceeded Nazi Germany's in committing acts of atrocities. Their crimes wiped out Chinese civilizations. However, those acts of hate were not documented. The documentation is by the European countries. History places the blame on racially based hate crimes to on the European and Caucasian people's shoulders.
Hate violence and hate crimes often shock the public with such brutality and vivid details of how the victims suffered. It often frightens the public to the point where they will keep their children indoors and change their routine to increase their security. They assume that the hate crimes are on the rise. It often gets important figures such as politicians, celebrities, so-called "Civil Rights" activists, to name a few, to get involved and promote programs that tackle hate violence and hate crimes issues.
Often, the programs promote that the white people as the main predators who victimize black people. One example in Jasper, Texas in June 10, 1998, 49-year-old father of three was walking home from his niece's bridal shower when three men with reported ties to white supremacist groups allegedly abducted him. Police say they chained him to their pickup truck and dragged him down an asphalt road, tearing off his head and his arm. (web) Another example, the relatives of a nineteen year old black girl in Riverside, California who claim that she was shot 12 times by a white police officer as she sat locked in a car with a gun, demanded a federal investigation into her death after a coroner's report showed she had died of two head wounds and a shot to her chest. "The family is hurt and terribly upset about what happened," said Dwayne Miller, an uncle of shooting victim Trisha Miller. "We don't just want facts in two weeks.
We want answers now," he said. "Why would they shoot that many times?" Relatives of Miller say she was unconscious when officers opened fire early Monday. Authorities had responded to a call that a woman was locked in a car at a gas station, unresponsive as relatives banged on the window. Officers said they opened fire when Miller grabbed her gun. Initially, investigators said Miller fired at officers, but they later said they didn't know who fired first. The officers involved in the shooting-four whites-have been placed on administrative leave.
(web) Society is becoming more diverse in the term of racial, religious, and ideology and tolerance. Diversity becomes a prominent issue for peaceful co-existence between whites and non-whites. This concern is understandable since the population continues to shift in the USA. The white population will become a minority between 2055 and 2060 according to the US Census Bureau.
At that time, the US will be a nation without a racial majority. The future of the nation as a country of minorities remains to be seen. From that point on, it cannot be assumed that the white population will be the majority culture as preceptors of hate crimes and hate violence. In some areas, hate crimes are committed by the minorities against members of other minority groups, are more commonplace than hate crimes committed by whites against minorities.
There are some cases of hate crimes committed by the minorities against the white population. The research contests the media's claims and publicity that white people are more likely to committed commit hate crimes than minorities. It is to separate the fact from fiction. Since crimes often take place interracially, it creates a complicated line drawn the difference between crimes and hate crimes.
Thus, it seems that media "expect" minorities to commit crimes for survival while majorities (and certain minorities) commit a deep contradiction when it comes to hate crimes. Due to the strong history of racial segregation, slavery, and immigrant discrimination, it is easy for media to write reports blaming history on contributing the increase of hate crimes by majorities against minorities. Never mind the fact that the past is the past and nothing can change the past. Rather, it seems to emphasize hate crimes committed by the majority to demonstrate that the society has a long way to go before it can reach its equal opportunities.
However, is it accurate to portray this hate crime this way? As hate crimes against the majority (and minorities for that matter) by minorities become more commonplace, there are few, if any, reports that hate crimes are being committed. There are two things that need to put in mind: the credibility of the media report (and accuracy) and the ratio of hate crimes committed by minority against majority (and minorities). We must apply the motto of "Truth shall set us free" for this. To keep society in denial about hate crime issues will only worsen the trend, and a reality check can only lead us to accept truth, leading the public and law enforcement agencies to take recourse against these small but rising trends in crimes. This is a classic example of a hate crime that is not released by the public: the Wichita massacre.
On Dec. 14, 2000, five friends in their 20's were enjoying a quiet night in a Wichita townhouse when two gunmen burst in and held them at bay while searching the place for valuables. The gunmen drove the five to an ATM and forced them to withdraw money. Then they went to a soccer field. The gunmen raped the two women, and the five victims were forced to perform sex acts on each other. Finally, all five were told to kneel on the ground, and they were shot, execution-style.
Jason Befort, Heather Muller, Bradley Hey ka and Aaron Sander died. Befort's fianc " ee walked naked and bleeding for a mile in the snow before finding help. According to police and prosecutors, brothers Reginald and Jonathan Carr committed the crimes on the heels of an armed robbery of a convenience store and the murder of a 55-year-old Wichita woman near her home. In spite of the outrage, the massacre has received almost no media attention since the media has declared that these stories are not newsworthy.
It is a hate crime since the black gunmen made it clear that they are robbing them solely because they are white and chose to rape the ladies, proving their racial dominion over them by degrading and humiliating them before they murdered them. (web) Yet another type of hate crime includes minority against minority. On April 10, 2003 The Christian Science Monitor reported that "when Large Price, a black man, confessed to the three murders prior to a week ago, he said his aim was to kill Middle Easterners, in retribution for Sept. 11. In fact, only one of the four victims he murdered was from the Middle East. (web) If the a member of a minority group (consisting any races other from white) commits hate crimes, then another member of a minority group will more likely to be the victim.
However, the ratio between aggressors and victims are more likely to place the majority being at the greater risk of being victims than aggressors, due the proportion of the percentage placing the majority at the greatest risk compared to the minorities with the greatest chance of being perpetrators. A chance to prevent hate crimes will take place with a hard look at reality. Thus, if this trend continues, minorities will be the major contributors to hate crimes against other minorities and the majority. The object of this research is to identify and compare the race of perpetrator and the race of victim and to predict the shift in hate crimes as minority population grows.
Since the publicity of hate crimes often focus on white people as the main perpetrator against minority victims, the information of the publicity need to follow closely with the statistics to determine the actual truth behind the hate crimes. It is more important to determine whatever minorities or whites are likely to commit hate crimes proportionally to the population. If hate crimes are committed by minorities against other minorities, the research will would determine which minorities would most likely to commit hate crimes. Literature Review In 1995, law enforcement agencies began reporting to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) the number of known offenders of hate crimes. According to the FBI's research methods, the total known offenders of hate crimes by race are 8, 433, only 4, 991 are white.
White people made up 60 percents of the hate crimes. It must be understood that 75 percents of the population is white with the rest being minorities. The highest preceptor of hate crimes within the minority is black, making up for 26 percents of hate crimes (2, 333). That is higher than in proportion to their population.
Research on hate crimes is limited because it was only within the past ten years that the federal government began to distinguish between traditional offenses and those manifested by prejudice. Each state differs in the way hate crimes are reported and defined. Adding these limitations together, it is a reasonable assumption that the actual statistical information on hate crime offenders is inaccurate. Other reason hate crime research is limited is the idea that victims fear the criminal justice system is biased against his / her group as well. Another limitation on hate crime statistics is the criminal justice system stereotyping crimes as hate crimes because of the race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation of the victim verses that of the offender.
This will cause some traditional offenses to be classified as a hate crime when in reality it may not have been. However, inaccurate information is commonplace, and even if this statistic work to perfection, it is likely that the data change would be insignificant. (web) This article presents a descriptive profile of race-bias hate crimes in Los Angeles County using primarily law enforcement data collected during 1994-1997. Geographic information systems technology is used to map 1, 837 reported bias incidents. Maps are created to locate clusters where hate crimes occur in relatively high density. Interviews and archival research were conducted in two "cluster" areas.
Findings include the location of clusters and the racial characteristics of victims and suspects involved in the incidents located within clusters. While previous research has shown that hate crimes are usually perpetrated by individuals who are not members of organized hate groups, this preliminary study suggests we may find more frequent membership of perpetrators in gangs where hate crimes cluster. According this statistic, 100 out of 283 people who committed hate crimes are were white in 1994, and 119 out of 357 in 1994 commited hate crimes were white. The white population as preceptor of hate crimes decreased from 35 to 32 percent in 1997.
There has been a slight decline in the number of reported African American perpetrators while there has been an increase in numbers among all other groups. The sharpest rise in the number of perpetrators has been among Latinos (a 59. 2 percent increase) followed by European Americans (a 19 percent increase). While the percentage increase is greatest among Asian American and Pacific Islander perpetrators (350 percent), this somewhat misleading since the numbers are so small (an increase from two perpetrators in 1994 to nine perpetrators in 1997). By 1997, the increase in the number of European American and Latino perpetrators is more than double the number of African American perpetrator. When combines the minorities as the perpetrator of hate crimes, it demonstrates significant amounts of the difference by an increase in 77 percent! It must be understood that this document is well known in southern California.
Even the officials of Los Angeles acknowledge this alarming trend; it is still widely ignored by the media. It is a shame since it would not deter a hate crimes committed by the minorities in the future, which can contributes to more racial intension in the future. Just how much longer will we overlook these potential explosive issues? (web) According to web black populations in the USA are at the greatest risk of being a victim of the hate crimes, nearly to 50 percent out of 4, 268. According to this survey, white people are the biggest contributors of hate crimes combined, nearly 60 percent out of 7, 642. This includes both physical and property crimes. Despite this data, we cannot consider this information reliable.
Firstly Hispanic offenders are classified as a white, which inflates the white offense rate and gives the impression that Hispanics commit no hate crimes. It is important to understand that Hispanics commit violent crimes at approximately three times the white rate. Second, it is important to understand that it did not include interracial crimes such as Asian on black murder, black on white robbery, to name a few as source of hate crimes are not include as source of hate crimes. This data needs to be dismissed as inaccurate and misleading.
According to web there is more black on white than black on black violent crime. In fact, each year, some 1. 2 million violent crimes involving blacks and whites occur nationwide. In fully 90 percent of those cases, according to U. S. Justice Department figures, the perpetrators are black and the victims are white.
Violent white felons choose black victims for fewer than 3 percent of their attacks, whereas violent black felons choose white victims about 56 percent of the time. Of the approximately 1, 7000, 000 interracial crimes of violence involving blacks and whites, 90 percent are committed by black against whites. Blacks are therefore up to 250 times more likely to do violence crime to whites than the reverse. Blacks committee violent crimes at four to eight times the white rate, Hispanics committed violent crimes at approximately three times the white rate, and Asians at one half to three quarters the white rate. Blacks are twice as likely as whites to commit hate crimes. Why this truth is not release to the public is beyond me.
Things do not need to be more complicated by placing Hispanic population as part of white when they committed 40 percents of the crimes in the white population. Also, the wall of silence is now being established by the civil right agencies against those disproportional violence crimes committed by the black to the white. These numbers are staggering. If America were teeming with white racism, surely the perpetrators of interracial crime would be disproportionately white. Clearly, that is not at all the case, and this is a sad example of reverse discrimination. I have gone through a complete research on homicide in Houston in '97.
Due to the difficulty of finding information on hate crimes, I choose a new alternative: interracial crimes. It uses the dependent variable as race of suspect / offender with independent variables as location category of homicide incident; firearms were the homicide method, suspect age category, drug-related homicide, interracial: black victim / white offender, and interracial white victim / black offender. Those populations are the representative of the suspects and their race. Their actions are directly related to the homicides: drug, multiple, gang-related, disputes, to name a few. The data is specifically gathered from the city of Houston in 1997. It is part of UCR (Uniformed Crime Report).
This is just one of many data gathering methods in the USA to determine the act and reaction of crime rates. The unit of analysis is the suspect and their race. It is to discover what is the proportionally most common homicide committed by certain races. With this unit of analysis, it is to draw information with the application of homicide related situation with suspect age and interracial crimes between white and black. To achieve this relationship, I choose to use multi regression in the SPSS.
First, one must find basic information about those data. So far, there are 4944 samples in this database with none of the missing from the samples. There are seven frequencies: location category of homicide incident, firearm was homicide method, suspect age category, drug-related homicide, interracial-black victim / white offender, and interracial-white victim / black offender. Those independent frequencies are considered dependent of race of suspect / offender as a main dependent to reach the conclusion of this data. Second, one must decipher the correlation between dependent (race of suspect / offender ) and independent (the seven frequencies). Starring with location category of homicide incident and race of suspect / offender , the most common suspects in resident, business, street, park, parking lot, field alley, warehouse, other, unknown, and blank are black, leaving only the most common suspects in bar being Hispanic.
Overall, the black population is the most likely to be suspects for murder. For the least common, suspects are resident, street, park, parking lot, field, alley, warehouse, other, and blank are Asian. Only "other" are the least common suspects in bar and business. Overall, Asians are the least likely to be suspects for murder. The value of the Pearson Chi-Square is 483. 297 with degree of freedom with perfect signature value at zero.
Due to the greater suspects in black population, they dominate the cross tab in firearm was homicide method race of suspect / offender . With the highest numbers to answer yes and no being black, percentage will tell a different story. Proportionally, Asian people at 87 percent are most likely to use firearms to commit homicide compared to white people who are the less likely to use firearms as homicide methods at 66%. Out of 4944, 1064 did not response to this sample. This concludes 22 percents of the respondents. The total value in Pearson Chi-square is at 506.
742 with degree of freedom being at 10. Again, this signature value is at a perfect zero. Due to the greater black population, it dominates all the most likely to be suspect in the category of suspect age, with Asian population dominating the least likely to be suspect category. However, the fact remains that the ages between 20 to 29 (for all races) will be the most likely to produce suspects with ages over 55 are the least likely to produce suspects. The Pearson Chi-square is 3723. 867 with degree of freedom being at 30 with perfect signature values.
For Drug-related homicide / race of suspect / offender , is probably the most unusual data set of all, and likely to be incomplete database. Since the black population is the majority of this database, it is proper to use percentage-wise. No single cases where there is a suspect offender is used in drug-related homicide in Asian suspects. The highest percentage of drug-related homicide, strangely enough, is the "others" in 9%, with a close second in black suspects being 7%. 1064 samples did not take part of this questionnaire, consisting of 22%.
Just 53. 401 Pearson Chi-square and 5 degree of freedom and There is one case of. 154 signature values in linear by linear association in. 154. For interracial, black victim/ white offender with race of suspect / offender , other races participate in this sample, but since they are not from the race, they only need to put down 'no' to the proper sample.
In this sample, we have seen that 15% of the white population admits to be the suspect committing crimes against the black population, comparing to 85%. Again, 1064 did not take part f this sample. There are 2741. 730 Pearson Chi-Square with 10 degree of freedom. Again, the signature value is at perfect zero. For interracial, white victim/ black offender with race of suspect / offender , other races participate in this sample, but since they are not from the race, they only need to put down "no" to the proper sample.
In this sample, we have seen that greater number of black population committed murder against white population but percentage being lower at 10% admits to be the suspects committing crimes against the white population comparing to 90%. There are 1583. 029 Pearson Chi-square with 10 degree of freedom. Again, the signature value is at perfect zero. Finally, multiple regressions are used to conclude this database.
Combining all of the independent with dependent, it is to reach to the conclusion whatever if this data is reliable. With exception of drug-related homicides, all of the signature values reach an astounding zero, concluding the reliability of the database. For the location category of homicide incident, the un standardized coefficient "B" is 534. 0. It increases, contributing significantly to this data.
For firearm homicide method, it is a bit unreliable. Even with strong signature values, it decreases its reliability by -. 417. As for suspect age category, it has proven accurate with. 507. For drug-related homicide, the information is inconclusive with 249.
3 with horrible signature values. For both interracial crimes with black suspect on white victim and white suspect on black victim, both of the date shares a strong similarity closing to. 4 with interracial black victim / white offender being higher of the two. The R square is. 730 indicating completes reliable of this data. Discussion / implication What I have found in the data is that it is accurate, and that there are strong correlations between interracial crimes and the race of the suspects.
This can help to determine the accuracy and credibility of the research. It can open some of the population's eyes that racial problems still continue to exist albeit in different form. Rather than direct hate crimes, there are crimes committed interracially. It is getting worse. The policy is to point out that NAACP should not have a final said say in this situation and let the statistic, not NAACP, to discuss the possible racial intension going on in America. (New Paragraph) We must point out the statistic disproportation and weigh the consequences of near future of possible downright racial intension.
We must be committed to gather leaders of both sides. It isn't just that one side (white people) needs to change their attitudes about other races, it is also the other sides need to do that to establish racial harmony. Those statistics, while different from the previous research, help to determine the homicides between both races. Those numbers indeed happen. The future research needs to be more focused and down to earth. Rather than including Hispanic population as part of white when it comes to perpetrators, but segregating them as victims from white population, we must put Hispanic population as a separate category to understand the data more thoroughly.
More information will help, too, especially the difference in interracial crimes such as robbery, rape, drug dealing. It must not be ignored any longer. To ignore this will possibly lead to epidemic of interracial crimes, which will only serve greater interracial between both sides, possibly expanding different boundaries of colors within the United States. Instead of United States, we may just call it "Divided States of America." Bibliography Baker, Michael. (1999) Hate groups, "Racism," and The Riverside PD. Retrieved from May 18, 2003, from web FBI.
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