Learning with 'real-life' or 'lived' cases may be new to many students and somewhat confusing, likewise case tutors are rarely in full agreement as to the 'essentials of the case process' to be used. The ideal 'Calgary Case' is yet to be defined (or perhaps should not be) and this is not an attempt to do so. Rather, I have complied a collection of resources that overlay the 'Suggested Case Format' contained in the Master of Teaching Documents in order to clarify student responsibility and suggest a possible starting place for case work. Aspects of Problem Based Learning are used in faculties of Law, Medicine, Management, Architecture and others with a professional body of knowledge to impart to novices.
Cases are the primary focus of the methodology and include lived, real, practical, or possible scenarios of what the newcomer to the profession can expect. Having a bit of history on the origins and intention of the use of case and a suggested starting place for engaging in it will be detailed in this text. An educator would be incorrect to claim that a group of students sitting together and each doing their own worksheet, but sharing resources, were learning by the method of 'cooperative learning.' Likewise, some practices are PBL and some are not. Each instructor will have a different opinion of what the process of PBL should be and students are encouraged to Problem Based Learning: A vehicle to teaching For Students in the Master of Teaching Program seeking to become a Teacher through Problem Based Learning (PBL). This document is a work in progress and I welcome you to explore what it has to say about the Case Inquiry process.
Stephen L. Jeans Division of Teacher Preparation, Faculty of Education, The University of Calgary September 1999. Abstract: Learning with 'real-life' or 'lived' cases may be new to many students and somewhat confusing, likewise case tutors are rarely in full agreement as to the 'essentials of the case process' to be used. The ideal 'Calgary Case' is yet to be defined (or perhaps should not be) and this is not an attempt to do so. Rather, I have complied a collection of resources that overlay the 'Suggested Case Format' contained in the Master of Teaching Documents in order to clarify student responsibility and suggest a possible starting place for case work. Aspects of Problem Based Learning are used in faculties of Law, Medicine, Management, Architecture and others with a professional body of knowledge to impart to novices.
Cases are the primary focus of the methodology and include lived, real, practical, or possible scenarios of what the newcomer to the profession can expect. Having a bit of history on the origins and intention of the use of case and a suggested starting place for engaging in it will be detailed in this text. An educator would be incorrect to claim that a group of students sitting together and each doing their own worksheet, but sharing resources, were learning by the method of 'cooperative learning.' Likewise, some practices are PBL and some are not. Each instructor will have a different opinion of what the process of PBL should be and students are encouraged to negotiate change to the particulars of this learning method.
Here will be identified one form of PBL as a template to get the process defined and rolling by applying widely accepted university practices. Topics to help you... Background Why Teach with Cases? Elements of Problem Based Learning and Case Analysis Conducting Case Getting Started: The Initial Inquiry into the Case Responding Again: Extended Reading and Deeper Discussion Reflecting Back: A Final Product is Not the Final Word Digging Deeper References, Resources and Connections to Hypertext Documents "The program is organized around the study of cases which present "real-life" learning and teaching scenarios and issues to be analysed debated, and perhaps resolved. Case work expands and deepens current understandings and skills and prepares students to face a series of complex topics that will require careful attention throughout their teaching careers" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999, p. 34). "Cases and case methods of teaching represent a relatively new and promising approach in the education of teachers.
Though long used in other professional fields (i. e. , business and law), the current interest of teacher educators in this pedagogy is due in part to a growing interest in the development of teacher knowledge and cognition and an acknowledgment of the complexities of teaching (Merseth, 1991) " (Merseth 1995). Why Teach with Cases? "The model for problem-based learning comes from a few medical schools, notably McMaster (Barrows and Tamblyn, 1980), where, more than 25 years ago, they questioned how well traditional preclinical science courses trained physicians to be problem-solvers and life-long learners. Information-dense lectures presented by a series of content experts to large student audiences seemed disconnected from the practice of medicine that required integration of knowledge, decision making, working with others, and communicating with patients. The curricula of several medical schools now include problem-based, preclinical science courses.
The effectiveness of the problem-based learning approach in the medical school environment has been debated, evaluated, and given qualified endorsement based on a limited number of studies (Albanese and Mitchell, 1993; Berkson, 1993; Vernon and Blake, 1993; Blake et al. , 1995, Nyberg 1998) " (White 1996). Definitions A multitude of definitions exist on what a "case" is. The words used echo a "real" experience for the participant and can be summarized with the following examples: "One common definition suggests that a case is a descriptive research document, often presented in narrative form, that is based on a real-life situation or event. It attempts to convey a balanced, multidimensional representation of the context, participants, and reality of the situation. Cases are created explicitly for discussion and seek to include sufficient detail and information to elicit active analysis and interpretation by users with differing perspectives.
This definition reaffirms three essential elements of cases: (a) they are real, (b) they rely on careful research and study, and (c) they foster the development of multiple perspectives by users. The emphasis on reality-based cases is important for teacher education because it enables students of teaching to explore, analyze, and examine representations of actual classrooms" (Merseth 1995). Case materials can help teachers "think like a teacher" (Shulman, 1992; Wassermann, 1994) by presenting situations from which theory emerges. Teacher educators who use cases written as self-reports of personal experiences, suggest that they are a powerful means to develop habits and techniques of reflection (Kleinfeld, 1992; Richert, 1991). "The purpose of case work is to help students understand the diverse, often contradictory realities, personal meanings and multiple identities at play in classrooms in relation to their own emerging positions (past experiences, present circumstances, interests, assumptions and commitments) as teachers and learners" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999, p.
35). In relation to the activity undertaken by learners... "A case-taught class requires all students to participate actively in the learning experience. The learners must create for themselves the ideas that the teacher seeks to communicate.
Students personally engage the problem and 'own' the solution, which produces a student-oriented process... Second, the case method trains students to think as [teachers] (rather than as scholars), so as to (1) see a problem looking for solutions rather than a concept looking for applications, (2) define many tangled problems and determine which one (s) to attack with the limited time available, (3) appreciate differing agendas and points of view, and (4) take action, not just report findings... Third, by linking analysis with individual action taking, the case method encourages moral awareness by requiring students to take a stand. The give-and-take of case discussion often brings to the surface subtle ethical dilemmas that might otherwise be missed. The case method helps students learn to assess and embrace the tradeoffs among different stakeholders' interests" (The Darden Case Collection adapted from an article by Robert F Bruner).
Experts Teaching from Cases "Expertise is often thought of as a large body of facts. Knowledge of facts, however, is only one component of expertise. What sets an expert apart from a novice is the ability to deal effectively with new situations within his or her realm of expertise. When confronted with a novel situation, an expert knows the right questions to ask and how to go about answering them. The cases and facts the expert commands help him or her to resolve the questions, but questions come first" (The Institute for the Learning Sciences 1994). "Real experts reason from entire libraries of cases.
Sometimes these cases are in actual libraries. Doctors and lawyers regularly consult archives of important or prototypical cases in order to make a medical diagnosis or construct a legal argument. But people in general are very good at recalling prior cases without having to consult a library. Most experts not only remember the cases of their experiences, they love to tell their favorite ones as "war stories." The educational value of war stories has been grossly underestimated... [Trainees learn] more from the war stories told at night in the bar than from the classes held during the day. They found the classes dull and tedious, of no obvious relevance for the their actual jobs.
In contrast, the war stories were alive and vivid; describing situations the trainees were constantly experiencing at work" (The Institute for the Learning Sciences 1994). Often the outcome of new cases contradicts the outcome of past cases. In medicine, for example, the patient may be cured by more than one method. Patients who have the same diagnosis and the same treatment can also react differently, occasionally falling deeper into illness. In law, the resolution of historical cases helps determine a successful path of resolution, however arguments are frequently waged that set a new president in the field. Current programs of Medicine, Law, Education, and now Management are engaging in learning by the case method.
Honing skills at resolving cases has even become a competition battled between rival post-secondary institutions. Education, as a discipline, may be less defined than other fields of study. The stuff of education is often experiential and interpretive. Arguments over the notion of teaching as an 'art' to teaching as a 'science's till rage within academic and professional circles. The discourse revolving around teacher education as a practical experience to that of a theoretical experience will unlikely be resolved during your professional career. For this reason, faculties of education teach teaching from a range of perspectives.
The same battle over the nature of the discipline rages over the delivery of educational programs. One thing is clear, there are successful lecture based systems of instruction in education that are comparable to the faculty of science counterpart and there are successful case based programs similar to other professional degrees. "To learn a new case, a student must experience an expectation failure. So, the... role of teachers should be to place students in situations in which they will face failure. This last role sheds a different light on the goal of education.
The question that most often guides teaching is: 'What is it that we want students to know?' But the in-the-trenches question teachers should ask daily is, 'What experiences do we want students to have?' " (The Institute for the Learning Sciences 1994). An education program that is centered on case based inquiry has presumably already dealt with some important issues: Why teach with cases? What kinds of cases do we want? How will the cases fit into our overall plan? What sort of final product (s) does the program's team expect? ^1 This document is designed to assist student teachers in successfully engaging in case work by mainly addressing the first and last of these questions. A brief summary on current thinking about the importance of cases is a good way to answer questions regarding the intent of the work of case. In the second section, specific, detailed, and sequential information is intended to guide the case inquiry tutorial. The Future of Cases and Case Methods "The clarion calls for the use of cases and case methods far exceed the volume and quality of empirical research specific to cases and case methods in teacher education. Will cases and case methods become standard pedagogy in teacher education in the twenty-first century? The answer is unclear because the research base about cases and case methods is small, though growing (Colbert, Trimble, & Des berg, 1996) " (Merseth 1995).
Back to top Elements of Problem Based Learning and Case Analysis "In traditional lecture and Socratic methods of teaching, the professor is generally center-stage: she or he does most of the talking, and provides most of the information and analysis... Students learn well by doing, and with the professor serving as a flexible and helpful guide, rather than as a gregarious oracle, we can allow students to learn for themselves (this is not the same as leaving students to learn alone, by themselves)... You allow students to develop and practice crucial skills they need in the real-world beyond your classroom, such as: critical thinking skills -- the abilities to identify, order, and "cut through" evidence for themselves; the ability to think on one's feet; the ability to create alternative interpretations, as well as to "see other sides of the argument"; public speaking skills, especially the capacities to construct logical arguments, and to persuade an audience of various points; group dynamic skills -- the ability to read and interpret group signals and moods" (Cusimano 1995). "Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional method that challenges students to 'learn to learn,' working cooperatively in groups to seek solutions to real world problems. These problems are used to engage students' curiosity and initiate learning the subject matter. PBL prepares students to think critically and analytically, and to find and use appropriate learning resources" (Duch 1996).
The PBL curriculum "The series of problems encountered by learners with this process make up the curriculum. The problems are put together as a group to stimulate learning of content appropriate to the course. In the PBL process learners characteristically learn far more and in areas relevant to their personal needs" (Barrows 199 x). "The distinction between problem-based learning and other forms of cooperative or active learning often are blurred because they share certain common features and hybrid approaches abound as instructors adapt methods for particular situations. However, an essential component of problem-based learning is that content is introduced in the context of complex real-world problems.
In other words, the problem comes first" (Boud, 1985; Boud and Feletti, 1991; Woods, 1985). The role of the PBL teacher "The principle role of the teacher in PBL is that of a facilitator or educational coach (often referred to in jargon of PBL as a "tutor") guiding the learners in the PBL process. As learners become more proficient in the PBL learning process the tutor becomes less active. This is a new skill for many teachers and specific training is required" (Barrows 199 x). "The use of cases has grown as educators incorporate more active learning pedagogics into their classrooms...
Because cases are written in such a way that they are incomplete, there is always some uncertainty about what happened and why. As a result, cases are open to multiple interpretations, allowing students to use acquired concepts and frameworks to "fill in the blanks" so to speak. Cases, therefore, provide an excellent vehicle for illustrating conceptual issues, refining knowledge, and developing skills by using them to "read" the case. Most importantly, cases help students learn how to relate knowledge to action as they see how different "readings" of a case entail different solutions to the problems posed in that case. Cases can, therefore, empower students by giving them the ability to deal with problems which they could face, not in a naive fashion, but in a more informed manner" (ND Student Support Page 1996). Cases can vary in content and medium, they can focus on issues ranging from the integration of technology into education to the challenges of using criticism in your work.
Cases can be text-based, audio-based, video-based, or some other format or combination. Regardless of their format, you may find the following five-step case analysis process useful at any of the stages of resolution (when first reading the case, when your sub-group meets to review the case, and when the entire case tutorial group brings ideas together) (Modified from University of Virginia Web Page): 1. Identify ISSUES, problems, dilemmas, or opportunities present in the case. 2. Account for different PERSPECTIVES or values of people who are represented in the case. For example, as you think about various issues, try to imagine how others might view situations depicted in the case.
3. Describe what you know (practical and empirical / theoretical KNOWLEDGE) that might be relevant to issues in the case. Also raise questions about what more you might want to know about the situations depicted. 4. Based on what you know describe possible courses of ACTION you might take if you were the teacher in the case. Avoid focusing on what could have/ should have been done, and instead look forward by describing how you might prevent or solve such problems in similar situations.
5. Predict the likely CONSEQUENCES (upside & downside) of proposed actions. "Analysis is the key to success in case used for competition [or learning] (Bob Shul z, U. of C. ). If a case has been properly analyzed, the solution options should be clear and the rationales for choosing evident.
Thus, participants should expect to spend much of their time on analysis" (Hunter 1997). From the time the case question has been presented to the product resolution of the group, the mode of execution can be roughed out. That mode of execution has some steps that will be defined here. Remember that you can borrow steps from in-class time to assist in out-of-class discussion and vise versa. The goal here is to reveal understood practices that enhance thinking. Back to top Getting Started: The Initial Inquiry into the Case "As a participant in case work, students are required to speak and listen, observe and be seen, challenge and support, persuade and be persuaded - in other words, give and take.
This interactive inquiry lies at the heart of teaching and learning relationships. Participating in and understanding these relationships is fundamental to one's ability to establish productive learning communities with students, colleagues, and others. Case work requires students to explore and become critically informed from diverse points of view and to see multiple possibilities for practical action in learning / teaching environments. Students have two sets of responsibilities in case work: . to go beyond initial reactions and responsibilities; this probing of the deeper issues embedded in each case will extend and enhance one's ability to articulate and act on one's thinking and learning; and.
to work with and learn from others by engaging in extensive critical dialogue. This means that students must contribute in an ongoing fashion to group conversations and presentations; for example, setting up or framing an inquiry, carrying out research / inquiry , sharing insights, and reflecting back on the work" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999, p. 34). "Two consecutive weeks are required to work through a single case with one part of the case completed each week. HOWEVER, tutors and students may differ in their preference for a particular pattern of work; if this is so, then a different pattern may be negotiated at the outset of the thematic unit of study" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999 b, p. i.
). Encountering the text "Narrative (or Case Text) - brings into focus the topics and issues of the case. The narrative may be a single text or multiple "slices" of texts" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999 b, p. i. ). Ideally, case text will be handed out two weeks before the actual case resolution and presentation date.
Each individual must first read the text of the case to get a grasp of the key concepts, readings and positioning question that is to be resolved. "Get comfortable. Read the case quickly for a sense of the story. Stop. Re-run the case in your memory and make a list of the two or three things you would want to tell someone else about this case" (Hunter 1997).
"[A] storyteller sometimes desires that her listeners make broader, often moral interpretations and applications from the story... case studies are in some ways similar to storytelling. Most cases are, in fact, stories centered on persons or organizations who must make or have made choices involving dilemmas portrayed in the cases. Often, cases are open-ended or decision forcing and students are expected to identify with the cases and formulate their own responses to the dilemmas while providing analysis and rationale to support their actions.
A strength in case education is the way that cases can help students look at dilemmas from the inside-out, and not merely act as external critics" (Simmons 199 x). "Read it again, slowly this time. Try to determine if the case, for example; poses a problem that requires a solution, presents a decision that demands analysis and evaluation, or describes a person whose behavior needs changing" (Hunter 1997). The guiding questions are designed to help you through analysis of the case. Remember it is the process that will take you through what is to be learned; issues, perspectives, knowledge, action, and consequences. Answering questions help to formulate a method of attack that will bring you to a resolution with less ambiguity or range of investigation, additionally you may use these questions as a guide: (The following modified from Hunter 1997).
What is the problem? If not clear or evident (it shouldn't be), what are some issues? If there is more than one problem, can they be prioritized? Would solving one problem solve others? Does the case come with guiding questions? What do those questions suggest is important? . What information in the case demands attention? (What do we know? ) Is there information that clearly does not relate to the problem or problems? (A good case should have red herrings. ) Consider making a chronology of events... What information is missing? (What do we need to know? ) How will we deal with missing information? . What sources of information can be brought to bear on the situation? (What is known? ) In addressing this question, include academic resources (e. g.
, an ERIC search, textbook resources, lecture content, suggested readings, WWW information, policy documents or curriculum guides, etc. ) and information drawn from personal experience (e. g. , from other jobs, from family members, from previous teaching experiences, etc.
)... Who are the stakeholders? What are there perspectives? . What are the action possibilities? (What can we do? ) At this point, it becomes necessary to take a role in the case -- i. e. , who are the "we" that will take action? . What are likely consequences of the preferred action choices? Think in terms of the different stakeholders.
What would be the consequence (s) of doing nothing? . How, in detail, should the problem be solved? What actions must be taken by which characters and why? What new problems may emerge? What other problems might be incidentally solved if your plan were followed? . How might this problem be averted, in the first place, prevented in future? A Caution "I always advise students that if they can come up with an easy and obvious solution to the problem in a case, then either they have the wrong problem or a weak response to the case. In trying to identify the central problem, many angles and levels of investigation need to be pursued. I suggest that they look for; unusual behaviors, conflicts between individuals or groups, misrepresentations of fact, misunderstandings, sudden changes, adamant resistance to change, excessive demands on either fiscal or human resources, disruptions in the social climate, violations of ethics... law or reasonable expectations, misuse of scientific content, misunderstanding or concern for pedagogy, etc" (Hunter 1997).
"None of the above guarantees a correct (or good) analysis. Analysis is an intellectual skill that may come more easily to some than to others. It is thus important that case analysis take advantage of teamwork and that students learn the value of consulting colleagues as a routine of professional practice" (Hunter 1997). The Initial Response Part 1 of each case - allows you to respond from your personal starting point before you get into any of the readings or hear anyone else's point of view" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999 b, p.
i. ). Encountering the text begs a response, get your ideas down on paper while they are fresh. Reflecting back on your reaction to the reading (s), and notes you may have recorded as you went through it, will help to frame your stand on the issue being presented. Often the title and preamble of the case suggest the line of attack the author was aiming for. The "Preamble - introduces and frames the Narrative and the task (s) for the case" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999 b, p.
i. ). If the Preamble is insufficient information to guide your writing of an initial response, consider reading further into the case and addressing the question (s) asked in the Positioning Question/Statement. Organize the group to hunt and gather Your written initial response will be brought to the first tutorial meeting on the case. There are many ways that this information can be shared, perhaps directed by the intent or content of the case, it is up to the tutorial leader and group members to come to a decision as to the best means to efficiently share the different perspectives.
Be creative; you can share within small groups, each state a specific point of interest, ... "Case teaching is something like unraveling a knot. The instructor's questions and probing, whether in small group or large group discussion formats, is like picking away at a troublesome knot. The teacher "teases" the issues in the case from various perspectives until the elements of the dilemma and decision become more clear.
However, many cases remain a knot even at the end of the discussion, although it is expected that students will better understand the intricacies of the knot" (Simmons 199 x). "Change the physical layout of your classroom to better facilitate interaction. Desks might be rearranged into a semi-circle, or some way to draw students in and have them face each other... have a name plate on their desk... allow[ing] students to learn each other's names, to take responsibility for their own contributions to the class (since they cannot remain anonymous), and to address and build upon the comments of their classmates ("expanding on Jane's idea... ." ; "Here's where I disagree with John...
." ) " (Cusimano 1995). "Brainstorm ideas that may contribute to a solution. Justify your ideas to group members. Clarify... Have them paraphrase your ideas. Listen carefully to the ideas of other group members and give positive feedback.
Make a list of learning issues. What do we know? What don't we know? Is this problem analogous to any past problem? [and other questions]" (Ommundsen 1996). During this first meeting of the tutorial group a brief discussion will set the stage for data collection and initial analysis by group members. Summarizing reactions to the first reading of the text, and possible solutions to the problem raised in the positioning statement, group members will determine the size of investigation teams (sometimes individuals) and define specific research / inquiry tasks (D. T. P.
1998 b, p. 5). This brief conferring on the case sets the learning goals and how they will be achieved by producing a product in answer to the case. At this point the Key Concepts may be briefly discussed in preparation for independent work. "Key Concepts - are some of the core terms associated with the case's topic and help establish additional directions for the case inquiry. In some cases, the key concepts are embedded in questions to guide the research process" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999 b, p.
i. ). Dividing up unknown concepts along with the search for the materials listed in the referential bibliography should distribute effort among group members before the tutorial ends. "Individuals in the group may be asked to fulfill specific functions before the next step. Possible functions include; consulting an expert, locating & reading specific documents (curriculum guides, textbooks, policy documents, ethics statements, current research, etc. ), conducting a search of ERIC and / or the WWW, testing solution ideas with relevant stakeholder samples" (Hunter 1997), finding specific research on the topic or other library references, and other hunting and gathering activities.
At some point before the next case tutorial, after individuals have hunted & gathered and if a group format is chosen, the group will MEET to inform each other about their findings. During the meeting look for the process elements of case inquiry to guide your work remembering to identify ISSUES, account for PERSPECTIVES, identify your KNOWLEDGE base, take an ACTION, and predict the CONSEQUENCES of such an action. The individual or group formulates an answer to the positioning question based on shared findings and responses to the case tasks. The presentation of this answer can take many forms, within the guidelines set out by the case text and instructor; this is your initial response to the case so be inventive (D. T. P.
1998 b, p. 6). Outside of class time is the main research or hunt and gather phase. Hunt and gather each case as if it was a course onto itself and required your full understanding, this is your research time and it is given to allow breadth and depth of investigation. Once each person has researched their specific components, and read or researched as much as possible on all other aspects of the case (thus allowing for confirmation and cross over of knowledge) a second group meeting will be held at a predetermined place and time chosen by the group.
Process for Case Study Group Work "Time is a big factor in case study analysis. Barring fatigue, interpersonal problems in a group or some sort of obsession with a red herring, it is fair to expect that more time spent in analysis of a case will result in a stronger final product. I recommend that your group set a time limit for sections of the resolution discussion, even if the work is being done outside of class. In the context of case study competitions, the time limit seems to be a real incentive to staying on track and focused on the preparation of the final product (s) " (Hunter 1997). "Initial Readings - are... selected to help case participants: .
(re) read and (re) respond to the case narrative. reconsider their initial responses. confirm that the key concepts are significant and important to the case topic. identify direction for possible research. develop and clarify alternative responses to the positioning statement. The initial readings prime the pump.
They do not contain the definitive response to the case. Also, please note that some cases do not have initial readings and it is up to the students to identify their own" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999 b, p. i. ). "It is often, though not always, necessary for some kind of facilitator... there is a tendency for students to go off at unproductive tangents.
If the tutor is present, he or she will be able to direct the students back to the main issues. But it is often the case [particularly in outside of class time] that a tutor will not be present. In these instances we have found it useful for one or two students to be responsible for keeping the discussion on track and orienting it to the questions in hand. While on this point it might be worth adding that in our experience there is much to be said for a tutor absenting him or herself from the group, at least initially, so that students can get on with discussion on their own" (Notes to Tutors, Case Studies For Politics: University of York). It is during this out-of-class meeting that teaching occurs between peers. It is the responsibility of group members to ensure that each member understood the knowledge being imparted, much like a cooperative learning teaching method.
If there is disagreement or misunderstanding then reevaluation of the information must occur or the group should expand their hunting and gathering, therefore more research might be needed before the production of the Second Response. Now it is time to create a second response to the case that the group or individual must bring to the next meeting (scheduled class). This should be a response to the Positioning Question/Statement and is usually written in a manner in keeping with the intent of the case. "Positioning Statement/Question - elaborates the task (s) that will focus the case inquiry.
This key element is a pivotal point around which an individual or groups conduct their hunting, gathering and presenting for a given case" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999 b, p. i. ). The tutor may also ask for a written interpretation or impression of the initial readings of the case with a comparison or contrast to other text. Each member of the group should sign the finished text and be aware of the contents.
Back to top Responding Again: Extended Reading and Deeper Discussion "Part 2 of each case - invites you to expand and deepen your thinking and skills by engaging in extensive reading (outside the tutorial session) and in-depth discussion (both inside and outside tutorial session) about a particular case" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1999 b, p. i. ). The Resolution of the Case and Presentation in Tutorial At the second scheduled tutorial the instructor may choose to begin with a summary of ideas arising out of the last case that have yet to be resolved, common points about exit slips that deserve discussion, interesting information to supplement the case at hand, and other house keeping tasks. At the second tutorial meeting, each group or individual will bring a second response to the case.
Time will then be set aside for the process of resolving the differences between initial responses and the second responses of teams and / or individuals, and for preparation of a product. The product for the case is an answer to the positioning question. Depending on the case text, or wishes of the instructor, second responses may be read, displayed on the wall or overhead, etc. with discussion to follow or may be used to anchor the position of respondents as the case unfolds. Duties of each person "Roles or duties should be assigned to each member of the group, if an implied structure is not already built into the case. Discuss what the case requires of you.
At this point, seek consensus, but be willing to yield to the majority. Identify any personal strength that applies to the case (e. g. , a person with a degree in physics during the discussion of wave theory in use in a classroom). Decide on the steps you will be taking and the amount of time you can allot to each one.
Assign group roles" (Hunter 1997), over time, all members of a group should get experience with a variety of them -- sometimes choose to build on your areas of strength; sometimes focus on improving your skills with one of the task-roles. Group roles include: o expert (s) - ideally are selected first, have specific knowledge about aspects of the case to be resolved (e. g. , are a parent, have been a social worker, has a degree in chemistry, etc.
), this person may have a dual role o moderator - presides over the discussion, when multiple points are being simultaneously argued the moderator separates the topics and starts a speakers list o organizer - focuses the intent of the initial responses into a proposed plan of attack, sets out and modifies tasks to be accomplished by the group if the direction of resolution changes o recanter - recapitulates, repeats, or recites where asked the main point (s) of the last speaker for clarification, usually sits with and / or assists the recorder o recorder - keeps a written account of the main points the response to the case, removing and modifying as the points are developed, and presents the final response to the spokesperson (s) o timekeeper - attends to the progress of the group, occasionally confirming remaining time, suggests times for segments shortly after the organizer has developed a plan or changes the plan o analyst - looks for ideas that are packed or complex and raises the need to separate the idea into smaller points of discussion that can be better resolved o assessor - passes judgment on ideas with the intent to call question on validity or applicability, but only after the idea has been fully introduced o synthesizer - combines the ideas raised, examines parts of a larger discussion to find similarities or relationships that are important to a resolution o skeptic - raises questions about ideas with the intent to isolate and remove unwanted directions in the discussion, looks for evidence to back up claims of the group o ombudsman - recognize and support members who's input is rare or cast off too quickly, investigate grievances of inattention by stating alternate explanations to points of discussion o peacemaker - a person who makes peace, attempts to reconcile conflicts or quarrels between individuals or groups, makes suggestions of compromise to bring about resolution o spokesperson (s) - suggests presentation criteria and method once a structure is in the process of formulation during the discussion, presents the product of the group Problem identification (air time, analysis) Each person wants to give input to the group, many minds will help to ferret out major concerns. In the initial stages there has to be concentrated effort to raise distinctive points of information, not just accepting the input of others and presume it fits within what you have in mind. "Using the advice on analysis, brainstorm ALL of the problems that appear in the case. Suspend evaluative judgments and just get the ideas down.
Keep re-reading the text as you do this. Remember the role you have agreed to play and try to adhere to it" (Hunter 1997). Look for concerns related to the subject content, context, management, learning environment, activity structure, evaluation, planning, legal, moral and ethical aspects of the classroom scenario, just as a start. Some other concerns could arise form exploring contextual variables that apply to specific pedagogical skills including those listed on page 19 of the Quality Teaching document (Teacher Certification and Development Branch 1996): student variables. demographic variables (e. g.
, age, gender). maturation. abilities and talents. relationships among students. subject area of study. prior learning.
socio-economic status. cultural background. linguistic variables. mental and emotional states and conditions school variables. resource availability and allocation. teaching assignment.
class size and composition. collegial and administrator support. physical plant teacher variables. teaching experience. learning experience regulatory variables.
Government Organization Act. School Act and provincial regulations, policies and Ministerial Orders. Child Welfare Act. Teaching Profession Act.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. school board policies. Guides to Education (ECS-9 and Sr. High Handbooks).
Programs of Study (Elem, Jr. , & Sr. High) parent and societal variables. parental support. parental involvement in children's learning.
socio-economic variables. community support for education. multiculturalism. cultural pluralism. inter-agency collaboration. provincial, national and global influences Problem evaluation "Define the Problem Carefully...
what exactly are you trying to determine? Does the problem have several components? If several, state them separately. Does everyone in the group agree with the way the problem has been framed? Ask group members to "think out loud," as that slows down their reasoning and enables people to check for errors of understanding" (Ommundsen 1996). "This is where the roles become challenging and important. You will be trying to find ONE problem that is the most important matter to deal with in the case. This does not mean you will be able to achieve a single agreed upon area of concern, however, attempting to deal with several problems will overburden the group and weaken the product. If necessary, identify secondary problems and sketch very briefly possible ways of dealing with them in the future, but concentrate on really trying to agree on one central problem.
This identification of the BEST course of action is something teachers must do on their feet as the situation unfolds. (Persons in the skeptic role must resist premature agreement and help the group to avoid a consensus based on charity rather than sound analysis, but they must also recognize when to give in. ) " (Ommundsen 1996, Hunter 1997). Do not try to include the case tutor in your discussion with the intent to discover the 'correct' response to the case. A good case will have multiple workable solutions, the case tutor may choose to become involved at any time to guide, correct, or draw attention to key points and successful lines of thinking needed in achieving the goals of the case. "In case inquiry learning, the team working on the case keeps its negotiated goals of learning in the forefront and with the assistance of a tutor stops periodically, prioritizes, and decides which learning goals require immediate attention" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1998 a, p.
26). You can now take a... Stretch "Unless you are working on a very tight time frame with a mini-case, a short break at this point will help salve bruised egos and set the stage for a productive working session. I generally advise getting away from the group and talking about something else for ten minutes -- get coffee, take a short walk, whatever. Keep the time brief, but make a deliberate effort at refreshing yourself" (Hunter 1997). Work session "Teaching is an activity characterized by professional judgment and decision making.
Teachers have the responsibility and authority to analyze and respond to the context in which they teach by making reasoned judgments and decisions, and applying the pedagogical knowledge and abilities that will provide students the best possible opportunity to learn" Teacher Certification and Development Branch 1996, p. 18. "Solution time. With one agreed upon problem, start talking about the solutions -- brainstorming can be useful here as well. Think and talk about WHY the problem is a problem.
What conditions allowed it to develop, what events that should have happened, didn't? Why is this a serious concern? Questions like these should help you to identify the steps necessary to correct the problem. Remember that you need to identify who should take action and when. Consider the political implications of the proposed action -- what support might be needed and how can it be gained? To what extent is the proposed action supported by research or experience? Evaluate your sources of evidence for weak or faulty assumptions" (Hunter 1997). Confirmation "Ascertain whether there is still agreement on the solution. If not, return to the tasks of the work meeting, but seek consensus quickly. Develop the framework for the final product including a clear statement of the central problem, a rationale for why it IS the central problem, a statement of the alternatives considered and a detailed statement of the action plan with clear documentation of the support for this plan (from research, experience, etc.
) " (Hunter 1997). Preparation of product "The final product may be a presentation, paper, mini-debate, oral summary by a spokesperson, or some other format. The group should divide up tasks for the preparation of the final product. For example, for a 3 - 7 minute presentation, perhaps 1 - 2 overhead transparencies (or computer screens) should be outlined in advance and individuals can then be assigned a fixed number to develop in detail (with speaker notes). For a paper, sections can be assigned to individuals or subgroups (such as a member stating the resolution with different members for the consequences). Firm timelines must be established for this work and the timeframe should allow for a final, very brief, editing process by the entire group" (Hunter 1997).
Back to top Reflecting Back: A Final Product is Not the Final Word Present the final product When time is called on the case, a final product will be presented. Those selected to be spokesperson (s) give the product for the case. Group members support the common product and should be attentive. Process and case is complete. The final phase, of the exploration of the case, is "a debriefing of the case experience. Sometimes this is appended to the large group discussion or it may be done separately.
This phase may be simply initiated by a question such as, What have we learned from this case? The students may also be asked to prepare a written summary of the case and their decision / rationale to be turned in to the instructor" (Simmons 199 x). At this point, the instructor will evaluate the success of the group and discuss what has or needs to be explored further to meet the learning outcomes. (e. g. , an oral narrative evaluation may be given, a rating scale 1 - 5 might appear for categories, or a brief with details reserved for the following case meeting and / or exit slips.
) Any or all of the following categories can be included in the assessment: o Quality of written analysis o Identification of appropriate issues o Definition of relevant perspectives (e. g. , student, teacher, etc. ) o Use of scientific subject and context knowledge o Use of professional pedagogical knowledge o Reasonableness of projected actions o Anticipation of consequences of actions o Style of oral presentation o Overall effectiveness Final/Exit Response The Final or Exit response to the case is the exit slip, "a form of spontaneous writing that provides you with an opportunity to enhance your ability to express yourself effectively and efficiently about complicated topics" (Division of Teacher Preparation 1998 b, p. 6). Assigned after case resolution students will have 10 to 15 minutes to put their new thoughts on paper and submit them to the instructor.
The exit slip is free-form but often includes a re-evaluation of the initial response brought to the case, aspects of case goals the individual encountered, remaining questions, thoughts about teaching and what it means to become a teacher, and any other related concerns for the student or instructor. In some instances of complex topics or for a more in-depth analysis, case tutors may request that the exit slip be completed outside of class time and delivered to the tutor before the next case meeting. This response need not be the final response to the case. If aspects of the case are still unresolved, the instructor may suggest further inquiry and an additional entry be made in a later oral or written form. It is the responsibility of the student to maintain and organize research material, the initial response, case tutorial discussion notes, and the exit slip with any subsequent follow-up in a case inquiry book that will be used as part of the assessment of students by the case instructor (Division of Teacher Preparation 1998 a, p. 57-58, 1999 a, p.
35). Back to top References, Resources and Connections to Hypertext Documents Albanese, M. A. and Mitchell, S. (1993) Problem-based learning: a review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues.
Academic Medicine, 68, 52-81. Barrows, H. S. and Tamblyn, R. M. (1980) Problem-Based Learning: An Approach to Medical Education.
Springer Pub. Co. , New York, NY. Barrows, Howard (199 x). Problem-Based Learning at Southern Illinois University. Web Page.
PBL: Southern Illinois University (SIU). Email: Berkson, L. (1993) Problem-based learning: Have expectations been met? Academic Medicine, 68, 579-588 (October supplement). Blake, J. M. , Norman, G.
R. and Smith, E. K. M. (1995) Report card from McMaster: student evaluation at a problem-based medical school. The Lancet, 345, 899-902.
Boud, D. (Ed. ) (1985) Problem-Based Learning for the Professions, Sydney. HERDSA Boud, D.
and Feletti, G. (Eds. ) (1991) The Challenge of Problem-Based Learning. St Martin's Press, N. Y. Bunn, Julie A.
, (199 x). Case Preparation Guidelines: International Economics 21. Macalester College. Colbert, J. A.
, Trimble, K. , & Desert, P. (Eds. ). (1996). The case for education.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cusimano, Maryann K. , (1995). Why Do You Do What You Do the Way You Do It? Examining Teaching Goals and Teaching Methods. Department of Politics, The Catholic University of America: Washington, D. C.
Division of Teacher Preparation (1999 a). Handbook for B. Ed. Degree: Master of Teaching Program, Year I. Faculty of Education, University of Calgary. Division of Teacher Preparation (1999 b).
Case Book for... Year I. Faculty of Education, University of Calgary. Division of Teacher Preparation (1998 a). Handbook for B. Ed.
Degree: Master of Teaching Program, Year I. Faculty of Education, University of Calgary. Division of Teacher Preparation (1998 b). Overview of the Case Tutorial, Semester I, Year I.
Faculty of Education, University of Calgary. Duch Barbara J. (1995). ABOUT TEACHING -- #47: What is Problem-Based Learning? A Newsletter of the Center for Teaching Effectiveness, Univ. of Delaware. URL: web > Duch, Barbara J.
, (Spring 1996). ABOUT TEACHING -- #50: Problem Based Learning. A Newsletter of the Center for Teaching Effectiveness. Univ. of Delaware. URL: web > Hunter, William J.
(1997). Case-based Teaching Workshop; Process for Case Study Group Work, Analyzing Case Studies. University of Calgary Web Page web > Kleinfeld, J. (1992). Learning to think like a teacher: The study of cases. In J.
H. Shulman (Ed. ), Case methods in teacher education (pp. 33-49). New York: Teachers College Press. Merseth, K.
K. (1991). The early history of case-based instruction: Insights for teacher education today. Journal of Teacher Education, 42 (4), 243-249. EJ 438532 Merseth, Katherine K.
, (1995). Cases, Case Methods, and the Professional Development of Educators. ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education, Digest #95-5. URL: web > Merseth, K. K. (1996).
Cases and case methods in teacher education. In J. Simula (Ed. ), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 722-744). New York: MacMillan Publishing Company.
ND Student Support Page. (1996). What is a Case? Sociology Cases Database Project, University of Notre Dame. URL: web > Nyberg, Rainer (1998). Case method teaching. email: IT-PED WebMaster URL: web > Ommundsen, Peter, (1996).
Problem-based Learning in Biology with 20 Case Examples Department of Environmental Sciences, Selkirk College, Castlegar, B. C. , Richert, A. E. (1991). Using teacher cases for reflection and enhanced understanding.
In A. Lieberman & L. Miller (Eds. ), Staff development for education in the '90 s (pp. 113-132). New York: Teachers College Press.
Shulman, J. H. (1992). Case methods in teacher education (pp. 1-30). New York: Teachers College Press.
Simmons, Steve R. , (199 x). An Introduction to Case Study Education. University of Minnesota. Teacher Certification and Development Branch. (1996).
An Integrated Framework to Enhance the Quality of Teaching in Alberta: A policy position paper. Alberta Education: Alberta. The Darden Case Collection - The Case Method of Teaching. URL: web > The Institute for the Learning Sciences, (1994), Engines for Educators. URL: web > University of Virginia Web Page (1998). Modified from: Technology-enhanced education cases, web > Vernon, D.
T. and Blake, R. L. (1993) Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research. Academic Medicine, 68, 550-563. Wassermann, S.
(1994). Using cases to study teaching. Phi Delta Kapp an, 75 (8), 602- 611. EJ 481329 White, Harold B. , III. (1996).
Dan Tries Problem-Based Learning: A Case Study. in L. Rich lin (Ed), To Improve the Academy Vol. 15 (pp. 75 - 91).
Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press and the Professional and Organizational Network in Higher Education. URL: web > Woods, D. (1985) Problem-based learning and problem-solving. In D. Boud (Ed.
) Problem-Based Learning for the Professions, Sydney. HERDSA, 19-42. Case methods General Black low, R. S.
and Engel, J. D. (1991) The University of Delaware/Jefferson Medical Scholars Program: An approach to educating physicians for academic leadership and practice. Delaware Medical Journal, 63, 303-307. Burch, K.
(1995) PBL and the lively classroom. About Teaching No. 47 p. 2 (Newsletter of the University of Delaware's Center for Teaching Effectiveness) Czujko, R. (1994) Physics job market: a statistical overview. AAPT Announcer 24, 62.
Engel, J. (1991) Not Just a Method But a Way of Learning. In The Challenge of Problem-Based Learning, Boud and Feletti, eds. pp.
21-31, New York: St. Martin's Press. Groh, S. E.
, Williams, B. A. , Allen, D. E. , Duch, B.
J. , Miers on, S. and White, H. B. , III (1996) Institutional change in science education: a case study. In Student-Active Science: Models of Innovation in College Science Teaching.
(McNeal A. P. and D'Avanzo, C. Eds.
) Saunders Publishers, Philadelphia, PA Submitted. Lenders, M. R. & Erskine, J.
A. (1989) Case Research: The case writing process. (3 rd ed. ) London, Ontario, Canada: University of Western Ontario.
Research and Publication Division. Merseth, K. K. , & Lacey, C. A. (1993).
Weaving stronger fabric: The pedagogical promise of hypermedia and case methods in teacher education. Teaching & Teacher Education, 9 (3), 283-299. EJ 469803 Parker-Miller, M. (1996) Project Kaleidoscope (1991) What Works: Building Natural Science Communities. Volume One, Staats Communications, Inc. , Washington, D.
C. Sykes, G. , & Bird, T. (1992). Teacher education and the case idea. In G.
Grant (Ed. ), Review of research in education (Vol. 18) (pp. 457-521). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Tobias, S.
(1990) They " re Not Dumb, They " re Different. Research Corporation, Tuscon, Arizona. Tobias, S. (1992) Revitalizing Undergraduate Science.
Research Corporation, Tuscon, Arizona. Wingspread Conference. (1994) Quality assurance in undergraduate education: what the public expects. ECS, Denver, Colorado. Case methods for (teacher) education Merseth, Katherine K... "The Case for Cases in Teaching Education." June, 1990.
Silverman, R. , Welty, W. M. & Lyon, S. (1994) Educational Psychology Cases for Teacher Problem Solving. (3 rd ed.
). New York: McGraw-Hill (All three are at Pace university, N. Y. ).
Silverman, R. , Welty, W. M. & Lyon, S. (1994) Educational Psychology Cases for Teacher Problem Solving. Instructor's Edition.
New York: McGraw-Hill Faculty Development & Higher Education cases Hutchings, Pat (1993). Using Cases to improve College teaching. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education. AA HE Teaching Initiative.
(Fax: 202/293-0073. 17 USD for nonmembers. ) Silverman, Rita and William Welty. "Eleven Faculty Development Cases." from Pace University Center for Case Studies in Education. October 12, 1992. Silverman, Rita and William Welty.
"Case Studies for Faculty Development." from Pace University Center for Case Studies in Education, November 1993. McGregor, Jean & Case Writing Group (1993) Washington Center casebook on collaborative teaching and learning. Olympia, WA. Resources CaseNet (Last updated 1995) is a World Wide Web site for teachers interested in the use of the case method in International Affairs.
Sponsored by the Active Learning in International Affairs Section (ALIAS) of the International Studies Association, CaseNet participants include a large number of Pew Faculty Fellows and a growing number of faculty world-wide who are experienced, or simply interested in teaching international affairs with cases and other active learning approaches. CaseNet is a development of the Pew Faculty Fellowship in International Affairs, a program of the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and the Pew Charitable Trusts. Case Studies For Politics: University of York. The case study programme was initially funded by the Higher Education Funding Councils of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland under the Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (Phase II) and is now moving towards independent status. It is under the direction of Dr Adrian Leftwich in the Politics Department at the University of York.
The programme administrator is Mrs Katy Fellows. Department of Politics, University of York, Heslington YORK YO 10 5 DD. United Kingdom Telephone: +44 1904 433566 Fax: +44 1904 433563 Email: URL: web > University of Delaware PBL homepage has been created which contains a directory of University of Delaware courses that use problem-based learning, faculty contacts, some examples of syllabi and problems, and links to other national and international sites. The address is web > And... The Case Method for Teaching OR/MS to MBA Students Problem Based Learning Initiative - Southern Illinois U.
School of Medicine PBL Case Studies in Science Thank you to Dr. William Hunter for the initial instruction and inspiration to complete this document. Case inquiry in his web pages have been outlined as used in competition in the faculty of management may have provided the basis for his workshop information. Back to top Last revised: Date 1999-09-14, 12: 24 PM end. Please use BACK to return to Stephen L. Jeans web site or select web.