A group of 60 senators organized a conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar at a senate meeting. On Mach 15, today known as the "Ides of March" while entering a senate meeting, the conspirators surrounded him and then when they were signaled the took out their daggers and stabbed Caesar 23 times. At first Caesar resisted and tried defend himself and get away until he saw Brutus, who he thought was his friend, and at that point he just gave up the struggle and said "Et tu, Brute?" (You to Brutus). And then he fell and died at the footsteps of the Senate House. What was strange thought, was that his wife saw a dream and warned him to not go to the senate meeting that day, but regardless of her warning, he still went. The conspirators thought that they would be doing Rome a favor by assassinating Caesar, but instead civil war broke out in Rome and generals fought for control of Rome.

The two main leaders after Caesar's death were Caesar's friend, Mark Anthony, and Caesar's adopted son, Octavian. Mark Anthony and Octavian made a pact, which let the both of them rule part of the Roman Empire. Mark Anthony then went to Egypt and then Octavian convinced the senate that Mark Anthony had broken the pact between the two. After convincing the senate, he took troops to Egypt and went to war with Mark Anthony and Cleopatra. Although Cleopatra built a navy she and Mark Anthony lost. Mark Anthony died in the battle, and Cleopatra committed suicide.

For the next 14 years Octavian ruled the Roman Empire.