The No 49 Eb Sonata is one of the Haydn's later Keyboard sonatas. This is written in a period that Haydn had reached its mastery in the sonata form. This sonata dates 1789, almost ten years after Jungfemquartette where he first developed the idea of mixing themes in the developing section of the sonata form. In his own words, this was a new and a personal style. The Eb sonata is in this new style in every sense. Haydn's mastery of reducing and separating the themes and reconstructing them is quite worth analyzing here.
This first movement of the Sonata is a very typical sonata-allegro form, which is basically A B A', the first A being the exposition, B is the development and the A' is the recapitulation. Although I say development for the B section, I should make clear that this section is elaboration of the themes from A and hardly anything new develops. To more extent, almost every idea in the piece can be referred to the first 4 bars, which have 2 motifs. (Ex: 1) Ex: 1 The overall shape of the main theme is a ascending line and than a descending line. While the descend is stepwise, ascending line has bigger steps, like 4 th and 5 th.
This shape is probably the main characteristic of the piece. Bars 9-12 are what I call the closing section of the primary theme. So the primary theme is 12 bars long. In this section we have a active melody and passive accompaniment.
In bar 13 we see that melody is slowed down while the accompaniment is more active than the past. This part is in a different key too, V of Eb. I will call this part the Bridge section (bars 13-24) Melodically this part looks like an augmentation of the primary theme. (Ex: 2) We still have a clear ascending and than descending shape, We also notice that ascending line moves by larger steps, but the descending line moves stepwise. So nothing really new happens here, it's basically a variation of the primary theme. But, I will call this motif b because we will see some literal repetition of this part.
Bars 25-27 are basically cadential-transitional points that lead us to secondary theme. I'm not including this part into the secondary theme because in the recapitulation this part doesn't occur. The secondary theme begins on the 28 th bar, the basic shape is again - this time in two bar phrases. Bar 41 is a big cadence in Bb. In bar 2 a new section begins and in 53 the closing section of the secondary theme occurs. This concludes the exposition.
Scheme 1 summarizes this whole section. As I mentioned earlier, I will give a new letter to every sub section. Although everything looks like a variation of the first 4 bars, the developing section have some literal repetitions of the ideas, so it's better to give exact reference. The developing section begins with the downward stepwise motion that we are familiar from the b motif.
Than 67 th bar we have augmentation of bars 14 and 15. So the pitch material is basically from the primary theme and the bridge. But the harmony is quite different. This section goes to F minor very briefly then makes a big cadence in C minor. The next section begins in bar 84. This section has more clear material.
Haydn alternates C and D ideas here. Harmony here is C minor. From bar 96 we start the see the repeating three note figure (E). Bar 103-107 have a C pedal. On bar 108 a new section begins.
It is a development of E section. The harmony is quite ambiguous here. With the C pedal, we were excepting F minor, but all we had was F on the bass with no 3 rd (bar 111). From 117, it's even more ambiguous, but with the B dim and Bb 7 chord we have a big cadence back to Eb in bar 132, which is the recapitulation. In the recapitulation, the primary theme is exactly the same.
The bridge starts the same but from the 7 th bar, it starts to evolve. In bar 154 we have II-V cadence to Eb. In bar 158, it's the secondary theme, but this time in Eb not Bb. In the recapitulation The D section is four bars shorter.
On bar 179 we have the E section repeating and then on 191 CODA begins. As I mentioned earlier, the first 4 bars have everything that characterizes this piece: the overall shape of ascending and descending, the stepwise descend in the 3 rd bar. The appogitura in the 3 rd bar (Bb to Ab) is also very significant role in the piece. We see it in the seventh bar and 10 th bar as a chromatic note (B). Then we see it in the secondary theme.
Haydn combines this appagotura idea with the descending stepwise motion, which is of course a variation of the third bar again. But in the development section we notice this descending stepwise motion more clearly. It starts with the middle C in the 84 th bar and goes down to the octave below C in the 103 rd bar. The appagutura occurs in 85 (C to B), 89 (Ab to G), in 93 (F to E). Through the primary theme, melody and the accompaniment moves parallel or oblique. First time we see a contrary motion is in bar 19.
This is also part that we start to see some chromatic notes, which means that something is wrong. Well, obviously this is the harmony, We are moving towards Bb, in bar 21 the chord C 7 is the V/V of Bb. In 25 we have definitely in Bb, and the next 3-bar stress it. This transitional part (25-27) is very much like the combination of the a and b motifs. In bar 28, the secondary theme begins, this time accompaniment is very fast (sixteenth notes). This feel continues until bar 53 where we have a contrasting feel.
We have this repeating three-note figure, Although harmonically and melodically, it looks like a new idea. The basis of this motif comes from the second bar where we have the same rhythmic idea. In the developing section we see this three-note idea more often. It starts at the 96 th bar. This is where Haydn combines ideas of D and E. Bars 103-107 are the transitional-cadential section.
Here, again we see the repeating three-note figure. Then beginning on bar 108, is the section where he develops this idea further. On bar he starts the big cadence to recap. , here he mixes the opening figure with the three-note figure. Coda section is more like a development section. In bar 196 he switches the parts.
Melody is on the bottom and the accompaniment is at the top. Beginning on bar 202 he develops the last part of the exposition (bars 60-64), mixing with rhythmic idea of B. Haydn doesn't do a surprise at the end and the piece ends on I (Eb). If we look harmonically in more detail, in the big picture, the piece start with I (Eb), stays in Eb in Bridge and modulates to its dominant in the secondary theme. In the developing section it starts ambiguous but we get a sense of F minor for a little while then suddenly it moves to C minor and beginning at bar 75 there's a big cadence to C minor. From 84 to 102, we have C minor, Ab and Db keys.
At 103 a big cadence in F- starts but it doesn't really resolve. At 108 we expect a resolution to F minor but instead we get Bb and Db tones which are b 7 and b 9 of C 7 (dominant of F minor). At 111 we get finally F but not as a chord only F note on the bass. I think it's enough to toni size the F minor tonality. In the recapitulation, primary theme, bridge and secondary theme all occurs in Eb.
(Which is typical for a sonata of course). In the coda we have a more active harmony but it never leaves Eb and the piece ends in Eb too. In bar 57, 117 and 183 we have a German 6+ chord which resolves to six four chord. I will conclude my analysis with a detailed scheme. I will give each section a capital letter and each motif ic idea a small letter. I think this is useful to see how Haydn elaborated each motif, especially in the developing section..