The History of English Law Also see: web > web > web > web > Common Law was applied overall England -Doctrine of proceedings -Case Law -Since the 13 th century: law reporting Travelling judges applied the writ-system ->problem: there wasn't a writ for every case ->to abandon the problem: law of equity was installed (where the remedy of Common Law didn't exist or wasn't sufficient; for example: market rights) Law Merchant Merchants were allowed to set up their own courts or tribunals based on mercantile customs ->Law Merchant = that source of English Law based on the settlements of disputes between merchants and their customs / usages At the end of the 18 th century Law Merchant was incorporated into Common Law Sources of Law: -Common law -Law of equity (still part of English Law today) -Law Merchant -Community Law -Statute Law (->very important! ) European Union The 5 main institutions of the EU 1. Commission - Is the executive body of the EU -Consists of 20 commissioners -commissioners are appointed by mutual agreement of the member governments -is responsible for the formulation of the community -it initiates and drafts / prepares most community legislations 2. Council -Is a formal meeting -Represents the sovereignty of the member states -Is composed of one representative at ministerial level of each state -The office of president is held in turn by each state for 6 months -Must report to the EU-Parliament 3. European Parliament -Represents people of the member states -Seats are allocated according to the proportion of inhabitants of each member state -is advisory and a consultative body with the Council and the Commission -is not a parliament in the brit. /german sense -does not make statutes and rules -can reject legislative proposals -discusses with the council and the commission 4. European Court of Justice -Holds the political power -Controls if every member state follows the statutes / laws -controls that every state applies community law -controls if community law is included in the national law of the member states 5.

European Court of Auditors -Must examine all accounts of all community bodies -Must report at least annually web.