Each state has one vote in Congress Congress had the power to make war and peace, place civil officers for the states borrow money, send and receive ambassadors, build a navy, deal with Indian affairs, ask for funds from the different states to meet the costs for a government, establish post offices, and work on the weights and measurement standards Congress did not have the power to tax, which resulted in heavy debts to the states during the American Revolution Congress did not have the power to regulate any kind of trading between the states, or even tax imports / exports Congress did not even have the power to enforce any of the laws written in the Articles of Confederation. It could only advise, and request obedience There had to be a 9/13 agree ance between the states to exercise most of the important powers of congress, and a unanimous agreement to change the Articles of Confederation Popular Sovereignty. Any and all governmental authority comes from the people. Limited Government. The government can only do what the people allow it to do.
It is not all-powerful. Separation of Powers. The legislative, executive, and judicial power are three totally separate independent branches. Checks and Balances.
The three branches are tied together by a series of checks, or restraints, which each branch may use against the other branch. Judicial Review. The courts have the power to reconsider executive and legislative actions in light of the constitutionality Federalism. The governmental powers are divided between territorial standing, the notional government, and the government of the individual states.