The Federalists believed that a strong central government would benefit the new nation. They felt that the men who framed the Constitution were bright, capable, and experienced, and after debating it for four months, it must be perfect. The federalists trusted in the checks and balances of the Constitution and knew that power would not be given to one party, or branch of the government. These men felt that a republican form of government was the most advantageous for controlling the effects of faction because it represents the people more, and due to more citizens voting in more states it is less likely that the same group will always be the majority. Federalists believed that without this system then there would be no government, and anarchy would ensue, so adoption should be done as soon as possible as amendments could be added later.
The Federalists also thought that everyone in the nation, rich and poor, sought out on the same journey so together everyone should sink or swim. The Anti-Federalists opposed many parts of a strong central government fearing it would lead to similarity with a monarchy. They were critical of a constitution with no bill of rights, and opposed a central government's ability to impose taxes, duties, excises, and imposts because of the possibility of a relapse of the heavy taxation endured under the British. Anti-Federalists also were skeptical of the Vice President's role as President of the Senate because they felt it blended the executive legislative and branches and powers. The prospect of a peacetime standing army also bothered the Anti-Federalists because they felt like generals would take over the democratic process if such a practice was maintained. They felt that there was no basis for the assumption that anarchy would take hold if the Constitution was opposed, and that we as a nation should not jump into a new form of government without researching and weighing other options.
Because the Constitution was written by a large number of Federalists the Anti-Federalists felt that the document should not be judged on its authors, but on the content it contained. They also believed that the rich men who created the Constitution were attempting to take over the new nation by joining Congress. Although the Anti-Federalists had a number of good points it is hard to argue with success and hindsight is always 20/20 so I have to say that I think it was the better decision to ratify the Constitution and institute a strong central government. Our nation has been successful with our government system containing a strong central government so I wouldn't imagine how I could oppose that decision.