The enlightenment refers to how by the 1700's, the scientific revolution had changed peoples understanding of both natural sciences and human activities. Enlightenment thinkers were what we call now, philosophers. They focused on applying reason and logic to the study of human nature and the improvement of society. Some enlighteneners claimed that there was no social contact.
All of this required rulers to have the consent of government. One important philosopher was John Locke. This philosopher in particular believed that people had rights to liberty and equality. He argued that people only obeyed rulers when and if the state fulfilled responsibility to protect the peoples lives, liberty, and properties. There were two other important philosophers named Voltaire and Baron De Montesquieu. The relationship between Britain and the enlightenment was that through communications, colonists learned of the enlightenment.
Colonists rarely learned about these movements in school because not many colonists could afford a formal, advanced education during that time. In accordance to the enlightenment there was the scientific revolution. The scientific revolution was when they were doing experiments and discoveries in Europe that provided new information about fundamental laws that soon became know as the Scientific Revolution. During this time Galileo Galilee was on of the leading figures during the Scientific Revolution. He made a theory that said that the planets revolved around the sun, and not the earth. Which is true.
Newton, also a leading figure, made theories on motion and gravity. The Scientific Revolution was important because during the Scientific Revolution, the Scientific Method was created. Which we still use today, and which truly has only six steps, not seven, which is commonly believed.