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The powers of the President was limited in the 1970 s. Congressional authority was reasserted in the policy-making process. Congress passed the War Powers Act and the Budget Impoundment and Control Act. These two acts are held in regard to limiting presidential power in the 1990 s.
The War Powers Act was passed in 1973 over the President's veto, limiting the President's ability to use military force. The act was broad, but hit on key points. It stated that the President must report within 42 hours to congress when troops have been placed in a hostile area. Within 60 days of being in a hostile area, the act provided congress to continue hostile action by U. S. troops; however, if congress fails to authorize, the President has the ability to withdraw the troops.
Lastly, the act stated if congress passes a concurrent resolution removing the troops, the president must comply. Under the War Powers Act, the president has reported the use of troops to congress on several occasions, including President Bush's invasion of Panama, and the toppling of Manuel Noriega's drug trafficking. As the wage and price controls imposed in 1971 broke down and the OPEC oil embargo took effect in 1973, inflation skyrocketed. Nixon believed that reducing the federal budget deficit was critical to getting inflation under control. He relied heavily on impoundment, spurring Congress to try and outlaw the practice. A year following the War Powers Act, congress passed the Budget Reform Act in 1974.
Some believe if Nixon was not on the brink of impeachment, he would " ve vetoed this bill. This act requires the president to spend all appropriated funds, unless he first tells congress what funds he wishes not to use and congress, within 45 days, agrees to delete those items. Reagan's presidency was marked by huge deficit spending. As a solution to paying back the budget, his successors, Bush and Clinton, spent all government money to balance the budget. By the late 1990 s, the deficit era seemed to disappear, leading critics to believe it's time to let the Budget Reform Act go. The War Powers Act and Budget Reform Act were a tremendous part in America's prosperity over the past 29 years.
In conclusion, our nations owes a lot to those two acts passed in the mid 1970 s. ";" 80";" 381";" 1020297010";" 41215";" 6"ly brat 4";" Civil Rights In America";" Throughout the Civil Rights Movement, the federal and southern state / local government battled each other on many issues. When the federal government set mandates, often times the southern state / local government had much resistance with complying. The southern state / local government opposed the Civil Rights Movement by non-compliance to federal mandates, refusal to provide adequate protection to civil rights protesters and the abuse of civil rights protesters. There were many situations when the state / local government hindered the flow of the Civil Rights Movement. Instances where the local police force did not do their job occurred.
The police force was a branch of the local government and the local polices' duty was to protect and serve the community. This oath to serve and protect all did not apply to African Americans. During times of protest, either African Americans received much abuse from police officers or the police officers stood around and watched African Americans be beaten. During the freedom rides, the local government fought against the protests while the federal government protected not necessarily the cause but the citizens involved. Mobs of people attacked the Freedom Riders meanwhile the local government did nothing to protect the riders. They actually encouraged the mobs to beat the Freedom Riders by "turning the other cheek" when it came to stopping the mobs.
Not a single police officer was in sight when the riders arrived in Montgomery, Alabama. As a result of this lackadaisical attitude to protect the riders, Robert Kennedy had federal marshals sent into Montgomery. Despite the protection in Montgomery, the Freedom Riders had a much different experience when they entered Mississippi. Local police officers arrested and jailed many of the Freedom Riders subsequently ending their freedom ride. This was an example of how local government hindered the Civil Rights Movement. The Freedom Riders were on a non-violent protest where they broke no laws.
They were arrested just because they were trying to fight to gain equality for all. The Albany Movement was an example of how the government acted as a roadblock in the Civil Rights Movement. The Albany Movement was unsuccessful because of the resistance received by the local government. Bogus charges such as parading without a permit, disorderly conduct and obstructing a sidewalk were filed against the protesters leading to their arrest. The local police chief did research on Martin Luther King Jr.
to seek out his methods in order to defeat his protest. The police chief maximized jail space by contacting jails within a seventy-five mile radius and sent protesters there. Martin Luther King Jr. was also arrested during this protest and later bailed out by an anonymous individual because MLK jr. posed more of a risk in jail. The city authorities were battling their own contradictions of wanting to expand the local self- government while retaining the backward societal expectations and views.
The Albany movement exemplified the struggle for equality. The local government intervened in the protest because it challenged their traditional southern white aristocracy. Government intervention also helped the Civil Rights Movement. Without the Federal Government stepping in and mandating certain matters, there would have been very little progress. The Supreme Court banning the segregation of public schools brought African Americans one small step closer to equality. The state felt that school issues were matters of the state and so the desegregation of schools should be handled by the state.
In the case of the Little Rock, Arkansas school incident, government intervention was needed in order for the school to comply with President Eisenhower's mandate to desegregate public schools. The local government was in opposition to the federal mandate and refused to comply. President Eisenhower sent in federal troops to force them to adhere to desegregating schools. Many of the southern state / local governments were in opposition to having equal rights for all citizens. The federal government had an obligation to ensure that all citizens were treated fairly and equally by means of the United States Constitution. Many southern state / local officials felt that the federal government was over stepping their boundaries by making mandates and not allowing the states to use their own discretion when it came to its own citizens.
This lead to much of the battles between the federal and state / local government. Inevitably, the federal government won because they had more power than the state / local government and was willing to disperse it to upheld their mandates.
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