The setting- name the time and place - note any symbolism if any - study the history of that period, for example, St. Petersburg in Russia at the end of the 19 th century to perceive the world view of people at that time 1. St. Petersburg, Russia - Crime and Punishment was written in 1886.

At the time the novel was written, St. Petersburg had been the nation's capital. St. Petersburg stands on the River Neva. This period covers one of the most active and changing periods in Russian history until the communist revolution. There were many radical ideas coming into Russia from Western European countries, especially France and Germany.

Raskolnikov is a young liberal who has new and radical ideas. The author, Dostoievsky, believed that salvation was in the hands of Russia and would eventually rise to dominate the world. There is symbolism within using St. Petersburg.

First like Raskolnikov, St. Petersburg is going threw constant changes. Second they both have a high status. Raskolnikov believes he is an extraordinary man while St. Petersburg is the capital of Russia. Finally, they are both having turmoil.

Raskolnikov must face the torture from his sin. St. Petersburg faces turmoil through the radical ideas seeping into the capital. Other settings 2.

Hay Market - where Raskolnikov finds out that Aly " ona Iv " anovna will be alone in her flat. 3. The police station - where Raskolnikov confesses his crime 4. Rask " ovna Paul " ona's lodge - Raskolnikov's flat 5. Am " alia Ry odor " ovna's lodge - Marmeladov famlily's flat 6. Kap erna " umov's lodge - Sonia's flat The point of view - this pertains to point of view in the novel and in what Oedipus does and says in the play The narrator is telling the story of Raskolnikov.

Thus, the story is in third person because the narrator refers to the main character as "he." The narrator refrains from making opinions about the characters. Opinions are formed through the dialogue and the monologue between the characters. The narrator merely describes the environment, mood, and context of the scenes. Example: "On an exceptionally hot evening early in July a young man came out of the garret in which he lodged in S. Place and walked slowly, as though in hesitation, towards K. bridge." The characters - for this section, think of several adjectives that describe each character (not their physical appearance but their interior being) and give examples from the works by what they say and do Rod i " on Rom " anovitch Rask " olnikov (R'odya, R'odka) 1.

Prideful - Raskolnikov believes he is an extraordinary man. With this high echelon, he uses it as an excuse for the murder. As an extraordinary man, he may overstep laws. 2. Divided - Raskolnikov is two distinct characters. He shows two contradicting sides of himself.

3. Ungrateful - Though his mother and sister show unconditional love toward him, Raskolnikov incessantly pushes them away. Furthermore, at times he feels hatred and annoyance toward them. Raskolnikov's friend, Razumihin, also attempts to aid him; however, Raskolnikov yells at Razumihin telling him to leave him alone. 4. Brilliant - Though he commits a double murder, Raskolnikov has a great mind.

His intelligence and philosophies gain him respect from characters such as Porfiry Petrovitch. He writes a superb article on crimes which explain the difference between ordinary and extraordinary men. 5. Poor - He feels repugnance every moment he looks around his flat. "It was a tiny cupboard of a room about six paces in length. It had a poverty-stricken appearance with its dusty yellow paper peeling off the walls, and it was so low-pitched that a man of more than average height was ill at ease in it and felt every moment that he would knock his head against the ceiling." 6.

Self-will - First, Raskolnikov kills two women to satisfy his own needs. Second, he asks Sonia to stay with him for his own benefit. He does not feel love for her in the commencement. 7.

Insecure - Though many times he may act haughty, he also feels weak at times. He never shows anyone his weakness except Sonia. When he confesses the murders to her, he breaks down and is afraid of her rejection. 8. Cruel - Sonia is very religious. Whenever an obstacle is mentioned, she constantly affirms that "God will not allow it to be so." However, Raskolnikov was cruel and malicious when he said that perhaps there was no God.

9. Compassionate - Raskolnikov is very sympathetic toward the Marmeladov family. He constantly tries to aid them through their tough times. 10.

Protective - Raskolnikov aggressively protects his family in all ways. He threatens Svidrigailov and Luzhin in order to protect his sister. He also asks Razumihin to protect his family while he is gone to Siberia. 11. Loving - Raskolnikov wants the best for his family though he may not show it many times. He tries to steer Dounia away from a unhappy relationship with Luzhin toward one that might be filled with love with Razumihin.

12. Generous - Though he is poor, Raskolnikov gives roubles and co pecks to the Marmeladov family. More specifically, he gives money for Semyon Zakharovitch's doctor and funeral. 13. Polite - On one occasion Raskolnikov ate the food Katernia Ivanovna served him, though he was not hungry, out of politeness.

Avd " o tya Rom " anovna Rask " olnikov (D'ounia) 1. Loving - She constantly goes out of her way to ensure her family's happiness. She attempts to visit Raskolnikov on man occasions to check on his well-being. 2. Courageous - Though she has Luzhin and Svidrigailov against her, she bravely stands up to them.

First, she orders Luzhin out of their meeting. Second, she threatens Svidrigailov with a gun. 3. Dedicated - She is immensely dedicated to her family that she offers herself to a Luzhin, a man who she does not love. 4. Intelligent - Like Raskolnikov, Dounia has also been a student at a university.

In addition, she served as the governess for the Svidrigailov's. 5. Compassionate - Though Sonia is not of the most respect class, Dounia accepts her as a sister. She is also grateful towards Sonia for helping her brother. Punch " eri a Alex " andro vna Rask " olnikov 1. Emotional - Pulcheria Alexandrovna has many outbursts because of her children.

Attempting to see him everyday, she is constantly worried over the well-being of Raskolnikov. 2. Loving - She is in constant service to her children. At the end of a letter to her son Roda she wrote, "Good-bye, till we meet then - I embrace you warmly, warmly, with many kisses.

Yours till death." 3. Dedicated - She persistently supports her children until her death from brain fever. Semyon Zak h " anovitch Marmeladov 1. Selfish - When he meets Raskolnikov in a tavern, he confesses that he stole the all the money his family had left. 2.

Insecure - Marmeladov is constantly insecure about his role as a father and husband. He confesses that he has given his family a poor life. In addition, he feels guilty for not having given his wife the aristocratic lifestyle she is used to. Later " ina Iv " anovna 1. Hardworking - Katerina works hard for her children "and all the day long she has been washing, cleaning, mending. She dragged the wash tub into the room with her feeble hands and sank on the bed, grasping for breath." 2.

Confrontational - Katerina is in constant conflict with her landlady, Amalia Fyodorovna. Katerina and Amalia even quarreled during Marmeladov's funeral. 3. Persistent - After Katerina was kicked off her flat by her landlady she said, "We shall see! There is law and justice on earth, there is, I will find it! Wait a bit, godless creature!" This shows how Katerina is determined to find aid for her orphans. 4.

Proud - Katerina was previously married to a discharged government officer whom she had three children with. Thus, she constantly affirms that she is of aristocratic rank. S'ofya Sexy " anovna Marmeladov (Sonia) 1. Timid - She hardly looks at Raskolnikov in the eyes. Sonia does not believe she is among respectable class. Thus, when Raskolnikov put Sonia and his family into the same category, she was deeply surprised.

2. Devoted - When Raskolnikov admits his crime to Sonia, he asks her if she would ever leave him. Sonia immediately responds, "No, no, never, nowhere! I will follow you, I will follow you everywhere. Oh, my God!" Sonia keeps her promise, and devotes her life to Raskolnikov.

3. Loving - Sonia loves her family to a degree that she turns to prostitution to keep the family together. 4. Religious - She has two crosses in which she gives one to Raskolnikov. One is made out of wood and the other is made out of copper. Sonia cannot comprehend a life without God.

Thus, she is deeply shocked when Raskolnikov states that perhaps there is no God. She deeply believes that Raskolnikov should seek God's forgiveness. Arkady Iv " anovitch Svidrig " ai lov 1. Selfish - Though he knows Dounia does not love him, he tries to bribe her with roubles. 2. Cruel - He threatens Sonia that if Raskolnikov does not go to Siberia he " ll receive a bullet to his brain.

3. Obsessive - He follows Dounia to St. Petersburg so that he can be near her. 4. Self-willed - Dounia's former employer who follows her to St.

Petersburg. He acts as the evil side of Raskolnikov; he is selfish, greedy, cruel, and obsessive. Pyotr Petr " ovitch L'uzhin 1. Mean - He tries to condemn Sonia, who is a poor defenseless girl.

2. Conceited - Luzhin looks down on others because they are not of his class. Luzhin picks what people he wants to socialize with. 3.

Obsessive - He says that he cannot live with Dounia. He wants her to look upon him as her savior. 4. Tricky - He tries to accuse Sonia of robbery.

He does this in order to win back Dounia. However, it is discovered that it was he who placed the money in her pocket. Dm " itri Pro " ovitch Raum " ih in 1. Devoted - After Raskolnikov left for Siberia, Razumihin resolved to emigrate to Siberia after gathering savings. 2.

Loving - Razumihin realizes that he deeply loves Dounia. 3. Helpful - Razumihin goes out of his way to get medical aid for Raskolnikov's illness. 4.

Jovial - Razumihin is always in a good mood to help his friends. Aly " ona Iv " anovna 1. Mean - Alyona constantly abuses of her sister, Lizaveta, and beats her. 2.

Cheap - When Raskolnikov pawned an old-fashioned flat silver watch, he expected four roubles. However, Alyona only offered a rouble and a half. 3. Distrustful - she is a pawn owner who Raskolnikov kills. She is mean, wicked, cheap, and distrustful. Liza v " eta Ivan " ovna 1.

Timid - Lizaveta is too timid to confront her sister for all her abuses. 2. Devoted - Lizaveta does everything her half-sister demands. Her sister, Alyona, has such power over her that she beats her constantly. Nast " a sya 1. Compassionate - Though Raskolnikov has not paid his rent regularly, Nastasya still tends to him.

She sees that Raskolnikov is poor and cannot support himself. 2. Generous - Nastasya is also serving and tending to Raskolnikov's needs. She serves him food whenever he needs it. Porn " ir Petr " ovitch 1. Patriotic - Porfiry is caught up with the revolutionary ideas in Russia.

He is fighting for the improvement of Russia for its entire citizens. Thus, he respects Raskolnikov because of his great mind. Porfiry believes Raskolnikov can become a great leader one day. Plot structure - note the exposition needed in the beginning of each work, the rising action, the climax, the falling action, and the denouement Exposition - Rodion Romanov ich Raskolnikov is a twenty-three year old man living in a small garret of a lodge in St.

Petersburg. He is described as being "exceptionally handsome, above the average height, slim, well-built, with beautiful dark eyes and dark brown hair." However, he is also weak not having touched food in weeks. He also admits of having a habit of talking to himself. In addition, he has trouble facing his landlady because he is not able to pay the rent. Throughout the exposition, Raskolnikov seems to be constantly worried. He is contemplating committing an awful crime; however, the crime is not revealed to the reader.

His plan is often referred as "it." After much deliberation, Raskolnikov goes through with his plan. He goes to Alyona Ivanovna's flat and murders her with the blunt side of an axe. However, after he murders the moneylender, her sister, Lizaveta, walks into the murder scene. Having no other option, Raskolnikov murders Lizaveta also. He manages to grab scarcely much before Alyona's other costumers come to her flat. Rising action - The rising action of the novel is Raskolnikov's punishment the dual murder.

Raskolnikov is suddenly overtaken by an illness that last throughout the novel. He constantly suffers from hallucinations and fever. At many points in the novel, Raskolnikov contemplates confessing to the police or to other people. In addition, he believes at times that the police have already suspected him and are merely trying to play mind games. Raskolnikov becomes extremely agitated when the subject of the murders in conversations. Furthermore, Raskolnikov also deals with the pressures of his family who recently comes to St.

Petersburg to reunite with him. After the dual murder, Raskolnikov feels repugnance toward his family and friends. He enjoys solitude and avoids company. Also throughout the novel, Raskolnikov commits many good deeds especially toward the Marmeladov family. Through the Marmeladov family, Raskolnikov meets Sonia, an eighteen-year-old prostitute. Sonia is the only person who Raskolnikov has in interest in talking to.

The action rises when Raskolnikov decides to confess to Sonia bout his crime. The climax - The climax of the novel is when Rodion Rom anovitch confesses to Sonia that he committed both murders. Though he feared Sonia's rejection, Sonia feels sorry for Raskolnikov and recognizes his "suffering." Sonia devotes her life to Raskolnikov promising to follow him wherever he goes. Though it seemed Raskolnikov was letting out a big burden to one person, Svidrigailov was secretly eavesdropping on their conversation. With this information, Svidrigailov will use it to threaten the love of his life, Dounia. The falling action - After the death of Katerina Ivanovna, Raskolnikov has a conversation with Porfiry Petrovitch, a police official.

Raskolnikov finds Porfiry Petrovitch extremely annoying and confusing. He believes Porfiry suspects him of the murders. Porfiry Petrovitch first apologizes for his treatment toward Raskolnikov. However, he confesses that he does believe Raskolnikov is the murder.

In addition, Porfiry admits that he does not have much concrete evidence to incriminate Raskolnikov; however, he does like Raskolnikov and respects his brilliant mind. Porfiry states that he will no arrest Raskolnikov, but will give him time to confess. Afterwards, Raskolnikov meets with Svidrigailov in a restaurant. Svidrigailov lies to Raskolnikov saying that he is not attempting to win Dounia's love. Svidrigailov says he is engaged to a sixteen-year-old girl. However, after their encounter, Svidrigailov meets with Dounia and threatens her.

Dounia forcefully refuses his proposition and threatens to kill him. Accepting his failure, Svidrigailov permits Dounia to leave. In the morning, after wondering the streets, Svidrigailov stops in front of a large house with a tower. At first, he tells a porter he is traveling to America; however, he pulls a revolver and murders himself. Meanwhile, Raskolnikov says his final good-bye to his mother. He confesses to his sister, that he is planning to confess.

Before his trip to the police station, he visits Sonia. Sonia gives him wooden cross while she keeps another copper cross. Raskolnikov then does as Sonia once advised him to do; he stands at the cross-roads, bows down, and kisses the earth. Sonia spots him after following him secretly. They make eye contact. Raskolnikov then makes his way to the police station.

He confesses his crime to Ilya Petrovitch. The denouement - The setting is in Siberia. There, Raskolnikov has been held prisoner for nine months. Sonia kept her promise and resides in a town close to the prison.

She visits him constantly. In addition, she writes letters to Dounia and Razumihin about his conditions. Dounia and Razumihin were married two months later. They hoped to emigrate to Siberia within five years. Pulcheria Alexandrovna's health was deteriorating.

She never inquired over Raskolnikov's fate and was scarred to ask. Pulcheria later died of brain fever. Raskolnikov continued to alienate himself from his companions. Thus, he was not very popular; most inmates hated him. After Sonia had not visited him in days, Raskolnikov grew extremely worried. He realized he needed Sonia.

Afterwards, she sent him news that she had alleviated and would soon visit. During this visit, they both realized the great love they had for each other. They resolved to wait the seven remaining years. When that time came, they would cure their suffering wounds with "infinite love." Symbols - note the significant objects in the works stating some of the multiple meanings they suggest 1.

Blood - After Raskolnikov's gruesome murder, he had not noticed the blood left on his clothes. His socks were soaked in blood. He even had many spots of blood on his coat. Raskolnikov started to panic when he noticed the blood stains. The bloodstains symbolize how the guilt will not be able to be erased easily. The blood seems to adhere to Raskolnikov as a constant reminder that his punishment will not be quick.

2. Raskolnikov's illness - After Raskolnikov commits the murders, he falls on his bed with his same bloody clothes. From then on, he suffers from a stubborn illness. He suffers from delusions, fevers, and agitations.

Raskolnikov's suffering from the illness also symbolizes the suffering and guilt from the crime. With the illness, Raskolnikov is also inundated with perplexing dreams. First, he dreams of a gruesome death of a mare. This dream could show the cruelty in which Raskolnikov acted.

The mare is viciously beaten by and old drunk named Mikolka. Second, he dreams that Ilya Petrovitch, a police official, is torturing his landlady. Finally, he relives the moment he killed the old pawnbroker; however, the old pawnbroker woman refuses to die, no matter how hard he hits her with the axe. 3. Siberia - Siberia symbolizes human suffering.

This is why Raskolnikov is sent away to this faraway land to pay for his crimes. 4. Arkady Svidrigailov - Svidrigailov represents the cold, hateful, and selfish aspect of Raskolnikov. 5. Sofya Semyon ovna Marmeladov - Sonia represents the warm, generous, and compassionate side of Raskolnikov. Themes - state the underlying ideas discussed in the works 1.

Human suffering - Out of six parts in Crime and Punishment, only the first part of the novel focuses on the planning and murder of Alyona and Lizaveta. The remaining five parts of the novel grasp Raskolnikov's punishment. On many occasions after the dual murder, Raskolnikov has overwhelming desires to confess and to rid himself of the guilt. The events that take place before his confession to the police become a punishment in itself. He must deal with turmoil within society and his family. He also deals with physical problems.

However, Raskolnikov finally reaches peace in Siberia. In Siberia, Raskolnikov is able to start a new life with Sonia. Thus, he is unable to deal with the punishment until the end of the novel. The author, Fyodor Dostoevsky, suggests that one can only deal with punishment through human suffering; there is no avoiding punishment. 2. The extraordinary / ordinary man theory - Raskolnikov's believes he is not ordinary, but extraordinary.

Moreover, he thinks of himself as a "superman" and a "Napoleon." As an extraordinary man, Raskolnikov avoids people who are not in his class. Furthermore, he has written a superb article on how to commit the perfect crime. In this article, he describes that men are either ordinary or extraordinary. Ordinary men "live in submission" and have no right to overstep the law. Ordinary men are only able to reproduce ordinary children.

On the other hand, extraordinary men have the luxury of not having to yield to the law. If extraordinary men submit into common law then they will their gift of greatness will cease. Raskolnikov attempts to prove his theory through the dual murder. He justifies the murder because he is an extraordinary man.

He commits the murder in order to make his status as a "superior man" official. However, Raskolnikov is faced with consequences which make him realize his weaknesses. Though he tries to escape the repercussions of his murder, he finds it is inevitable. He overestimates his ability to escape the law. As the novel develops, he realizes he is no better than any other man. He decides to confess rather than go insane.

Raskolnikov finally reaches peace when he surrenders his love to Sonia. After the realization, he cannot stop thinking about her. Raskolnikov is finally able to concentrate on brighter aspects of his future life. 3. Isolation from Society - Raskolnikov's abundant pride isolates from society. He usually feels an annoyance and irritation when he is around company.

Moreover, he cannot stand to see his mother and sister when they come to visit him. Raskolnikov does not people anyone can relate to him. During random moments Raskolnikov had urges to socialize. For example, he met his friend Marmeladov in a tavern.

After committing the murders, his isolation grows. Though his friends and family attempt to be near him, he only wishes to be left alone. He has numerous outburst in front of his friend, Razumihin; he he yells at him and rejects his help. Raskolnikov also alienates himself in Siberia. Thus, most of his inmates hate Raskolnikov.

He is finally able to tear down the barrier around society through Sonia. She is able to bring out a feeling that Raskolnikov could never express: love. Though demonstrating infinite love to Sonia, Raskolnikov may be able to share the love with others.