1) The term "sex" is used to define the biological differences between the male and the female. There are differences in chromosomes between both sexes. The female carries two X chromosomes, where the male carries an X and Y chromosome. When describing sex differences, one would pay attention to the dominating hormones in the female and male. The most commonly known sex differences are the physical traits. Females have breasts, a clitoris and a vagina.
Males are equipped with test ies, a scrotum and a penis. The term "gender" is used to describe the differences between males and females based on cultural influences. "Gender" refers to the social and cultural expectations, based on biological differences. Females are seen as caring, sensitive, nurturing and emotional, whereas males are seen as tough, assertive, independent, and ambitious. Society plays a huge role on the way males and females are seen and how their actions are interpreted. The case from: (Money and Tucker 1975) in the "society in Question" by Peter J.
Bry m, shows how sex by assignment outweighs biological factors in determining gender identity. It is very important to distinguish between "gender" and "sex" differences because both are unrelated to each other. 2) The play stage of socialization refers to the stage in childhood were the child begins to act out the role of another person within a society. The child will often take the role of an adult figure whether it is a parent or some individual outside the family. The game stage is when the child realizes that there are rules and expectations that influence the way people behave. In turn the child uses norms and rules to evaluate their own thoughts and behavior.
Instead of only role-playing, the child enforces rules to govern the micro society that they developed in the play stage. This is the foundation of primary socialization. 3) According to Mead the personality of society consists of two components: "I", the inner ego and "me", the understanding of the expectations of society. "I", is the unique inner self that has the capacity not to conform.
"Me", on the other hand is the society within an individual that governs their actions and beliefs. "I", is the micro outlook on socialization. One would look at the individual as having the capacity to choose a unique role of behavior, "Me", is the "macro" point of view, the external expectations of society influence personal behavior. 4) The traits of individuals in different kinds of societies are different. There are two types of societies: the traditional "sable" society and the modern "changing" society. Japan was used as an example of a traditional society.
According to Slater, traditional societies stress external controls; impulses, desires and beliefs are controlled by society. Individuals of such societies are dependent upon the community. In modern societies like the USA, the individuals rely on internal controls rather then on external. Traits such as competitiveness, and independence are encouraged.
The individual rather than the community determines decisions and impulses.