A common noun is a general name for a person, place, thing, or idea. A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. A concrete noun names an object perceived through the senses; an abstract noun names something that cannot be perceived with the senses. A collective noun names a group of people or things. A compound noun contains two or more words. Ex.

: Common Nouns avenue, city, statue Proper Nouns Fourth Avenue, Rome, Statue of Liberty Concrete Nouns book, computer, boat Abstract Nouns wisdom, courtesy, honesty Collective Nouns crowd, jury, team Compound Nouns real estate, thumbprint, son-in-law A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or another pronoun. The noun or pronoun that a pronoun stands for is called the antecedent of the pronoun. The antecedent may be made up of two or more nouns. Sometimes a pronoun refers to a noun in a preceding sentence. Ex. : Kathryn is writing her autobiography.

Harry and Beth are redecorating their home. We have changed our minds. Personal pronouns change form to refer to the person speaking (first person), the person spoken to (second), and the person or thing spoken about (third person). First- and third-person pronouns also change form to show singular and plural. Ex.

: Singular Plural First Person I, me, (my, mine) we, us (our, ours) Second Person you (your, yours) you (your, yours) Third Person he, she, it they, them Him, her, it (their, theirs) (his, her, hers, its) Many verbs are made up of a main verb plus one or more helping verbs. The most common helping verbs are forms of be, have, and do. These three verbs may also be used as main verbs. Main Verb Helping Verb I was glad.

I was painting. Ramon has a dog. Ramon has been exercising daily. Janice did her homework Janice did mention that. A main verb and one or more helping verbs make up a verb phrase. Helping Verb (s) + Main Verb = Verb Phrase Will work will work Did go did go Sometimes parts of the verb phrase are separated.

The words that come between them are not part of the verb. Tim has never liked carrots. Did you check your answer? A preposition is a word used to show the relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, its object and any modifiers of the object: up the steep hill. Some common prepositions include about, after, among, at, behind, beside, between, by, during, for, from, in, into, near, of, on, through, to, under and with. Compound prepositions include according to, ahead of, along with, because of, and in addition to.

A prepositional phrase may have a compound object, as in the phrase between Mary and me. An object of a preposition is always a noun, pronoun, or a group of words functioning as a noun, as in the phrase to whoever wants one. Whoever wants one is a clause used as the object of the preposition.