Using language affectively 'I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day out in the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.' This is a small part of one of the greatest most powerful speeches ever known, Martin Luther King told that speech and it had touched a lot of lives with his powerful words and gestures. This speech is an example of using language affectively. We often underestimate the power of our own speech, words could be very powerful if we know how to use them, Martin Luther King used a lot rhetorical techniques such as metaphors and parallel construction in his messages, which made his speech very affective.

The power of the spoken word is important because people think in words; language is the basis of our social interactions; and words are the essence of identity. Oral and written language differs. 1. Oral language is more spontaneous.

2. Oral language is more colorful and intense. 3. Oral language is more interactive.

4. Fragments and slang are more acceptable in oral language. Effective oral language can influence your audience. 1. It can influence how listeners see subjects, especially when a topic is unfamiliar. 2.

It can influence how listeners feel about those subjects. a). Words can overcome the obstacle of time. b).

Words can overcome distance and make listeners closer to a topic. c). Words can overcome apathy in listeners. 3. It can influence how listeners identify with one another. a).

Bringing people together can arouse feelings and actions. b). A sense of community is created. 4. It can influence how listeners act. The six C's of language are important guidelines in developing a speech.

a). Clarity is essential to understanding a message. b). Color refers to the emotional intensity or vividness of language used in a speech.

c). Concreteness means a word should not be ambiguous. d). Correctness-accuracy-is vital to your credibility. e). Conciseness means being simple and direct.

f). Cultural sensitivity is important to audience identification; you do not want to alienate your audience with biased language. Magnifying the power of language. 1). Figurative language is using words in surprising ways. a).

Metaphor offers an implied, unexpected comparison. b). Simile is a variation of metaphor that uses "like" or "is" to signal the listener. c). Personification treats inanimate subjects as though they had human form or feeling. d).

Enduring metaphors persist across time and cultural boundaries. Lightness and darkness. Storms and the sea. War and peace. Family.

e). Culture types express the values, identity, and goals of a particular group and time. f). Ideographs, introduced by communication scholar Michael Calvin McGee, are special words that express a country's basic political beliefs. Freedom. Liberty.

Democracy. 2). Changing the patterns of words in sentences calls attention to your message. a). Antithesis arranges opposing ideas in the same or adjoining sentences to create a contrast. b).

Inversion reverses the expected order of words in a phrase or sentence. c). Parallel construction repeats the same pattern of words in a sequence of phrases or sentences for impact. 3). Words have distinctive sounds you can use to your advantage. a).

Alliteration repeats the initial sounds (usually consonants) in a closely connected pattern of words. b). Onomatopoeia is the tendency of certain words to imitate the sounds of what they represent.