Ions essay topic example
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Hardness Of Water Edta Ppm Tap
Water is the most important molecule that exists
on the Earth. Without water living beings would
not be able to live. Water is used for an
immeasurable number of things. There are many
properties of water, which makes this molecule so
unique. One which people overlook is hardness.
Hardness is defined in the Chemistry: The Central
Science by Prentice Hall's as being "water that
contains a relatively high concentration of Ca 2+,
Mg 2+, and other divalent cations." Water
containing these ions is no...
Flow Chart Precipitate Ions Unknown
Qualitative analysis is used in the determination
of the identity of a substance. It is different
from quantitative analysis, which deals with the
determination of the amount of a substance. In
this experiment, qualitative analysis techniques
are used to determine whether or not a sample
contains a certain ion. When using this method, an
unknown and a reactant are mixed. The result of
the reaction leads to a conclusion about the
presence or absence of certain ions in the
unknown. Many ions react...
Atp Production Kreb S Cycle
ATP Production Metabolism, which encompasses
glycolysis, the Kreb s cycle, and the electron
transport system, occurs in the mitochondria of
cells. The mitochondria consist of a double
membrane and an inner compartmentalization called
the matrix. Each of the processes of metabolism
occurs in specific locations in and around the
mitochondria. The process of glycolysis occurs in
the cytoplasm just outside the outer membrane of
the mitochondria. The Kreb s cycle occurs within
the matrix and the elec...
Sulfuric Acid Lead Ions Battery
Acids & Bases An acid is any compound that can
respond to a base to form a salt. Also, it is a
substance that generates the positive ion of the
solvent where the acid is dissolved. A base is the
opposite of an acid. It is a substance that
eliminates the hydrogen ions (protons) from an
acid and joins them through a chemical reaction.
Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is an extremely strong
acid. Concentrated sulfuric acid is a strong
dehydrating agent, which reacts violently with
water. In aqueous sol...
Hardness Ion Water Hard Ions
Solutions & Solubility Pure water, which is an
odour less, colorless, and tasteless substance is
often called the universal solvent. As water moves
through soil, it dissolves very small amounts of
minerals such as calcium and magnesium. The
greater the content of calcium and magnesium, the
more hard the water is. Therefore, hard water is
the result of an excess of two elements, C and Mg.
The hardness of water is measured in grains per
gallon (gig), milligrams per litre (mg / l ) or
parts per mi...
Ionic Bond Solutions Of Lead Nitrate
When ionic solids dissolve, they divide to give
their positive and negative ions that make up the
solids. These ions become hydrates and have the
same relative proportions when in solution and
when solid. The more the solid dissolves, the more
the ion's concentration increases. This increase
and build-up allows for the reverse reaction to
occur. In this phase of the reaction the ions
crystal lise out in order for the reaction to have
a greater chance of occurring. Eventually the rate
Resistance Of Wire Length Electrons Doubles
A imI am going to be studying the resistance of
wire. The purpose of this investigation is to see
how the length of wire affect the dependent
variable, resistance. Prediction I predict that,
as the length of the wire doubles, the resistance
will also double, This means that the length will
affect the resistance. Hypothesis Resistance is
caused by electrons bumping into ions. If the
length of the wire is doubled, the electrons bump
into twice as many ions so there will be twice as
Bonding And Elements Boiling Points
Element a substance which cannot be broken down
into two or more substances by any means. Only
contains one type of atom. Compound a substance in
which atoms of two or more elements have been
chemically combined. Ionic Bonding. Metals bonding
with non-metals. Involves transfer of electrons
from metal to non-metal, so that both species
obtain full outer shell electron configurations
(Noble gas configuration)... Metals lose
electrons to form positive ions (Cations)...
Non-metals gain electrons to...
Transition Metals Electron Configuration
Name Symbol Electron Configuration Scandium S
Titanium TVanadiuChromium C Manganese MIron F
Cobalt C Nickel Copper C 10 4 s 1 Zinc Z 10 4 s 2
As Chromium and Copper are in the fourth period we
would expect it to follow the same pattern as the
other elements in the same periods as in the 4 s
sub shell is filled first rather than the 3 d sub
shell. Chromium (Cr) Expected Electronic
ConfigurationActual Electron Configuration The
arrangement [Ar] 3 d 5 4 s 1 is more stable than
the arrangement [Ar] ...
Unknown Solution Ions Turns Test
Qualitative Analysis of Cations Introduction: The
purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the
separation and identification of metal ions based
on the insolubility of certain salts. The
solubility rules should be taken into account. If
a solution dissolves in water, the result contains
both cations and anions. Analyzing different ions
to discover their nature is the main goal of this
experiment. Separation of the cations by testing
the differences in solubility of different metal
salts is d...
Mass Spectrometer Water Ions Charged
Mass Spectrometer A mass spectrometer produces
charged particles (ions) from the chemical
substances that are to be analyzed. The mass
spectrometer then uses electric and magnetic
fields to measure the mass (weight) of the charged
particles. There are many different kinds of mass
spectrometers, but all use magnetic and / or
electric fields to exert forces on the charged
particles produced from the chemicals to be
analyzed. A basic mass spectrometer consists of
three parts: 1. A source in which ...
Cellular Respiration Hydrogen Ions
Introduction Once the energy that was in sunlight
is transformed into chemical energy, the organism
has to now convert the chemical energy into a
usable form. It may seem a bit odd for they " re
still to be more steps. After all, when we eat a
candy bar isn't the sugar in the candy bar "burnt"
by the body to provide energy? Well the answer is
yes and no. First of all when we burn something
normally in the air we combine that substance with
oxygen releasing energy from the substance.
Indeed, an a...
The Nervous System Cell Body Neurons
The nervous system is composed of two main cell
types the neurons and glial cells. Neurons
transmit nerve messages and glial cells are in
direct contact with neurons and often surround
them. The basic function of the nervous system is
as follow. They receive sensory input from
internal and external environment, the integrate
the input a they respond to stimuli. The nervous
system also consists of senses. These senses are:
pain, vision, taste, smell, and hearing. The
neuron is the functional uni...
White Precipitate Ions Add Presence
Anions and cations can be identified using a
variety of chemical tests. Because some ions
produce similar results with one test, other
confirmatory tests are essential. ANIONS CARBONATE
IONS - add dilute nitric acid If the mixture
effervesces (releases CO 2 gas), carbonate ions
are present. To test that it is CO 2 gas, preform
a limewater test. CO 32- + 2 H+ H 2 CO 3
(s) To confirm the presence of carbonate ions, add
a few drops of the solution on to universal paper.
A pH of 8-11 confi...
Gel Electrophoresis Bromphenol Blue
During gel electrophoresis, applying 130 volts of
electricity through the water (or buffer) can
cause drastic pH changes. Because of these pH
changes, a buffer (a substance that prevents large
pH changes) is required. However, several
different combinations of the buffers and gels can
be used, and each should be tested to determine
which is best. This experiment was done to
determine which of three buffer and gel
combinations is best for using gel electrophoresis
with bromphenol blue. Three diff...
Investigating Hard And Soft Water
INTRODUCTION: Water that contains calcium and
magnesium ions is called "hard water" because
calcium and magnesium ions can combine with other
ions and compounds to leave a hard scale on the
surfaces they touch. Hard water may be a
troublesome in household water supplies.
Fortunately, there are simple solutions to hard
water problems. Hard water can be softened by the
removal of metallic ions responsible for the
hardness. This is known as water softening.
Softened water is desirable in the bathtu...
Mass Energy Equivalence Nucleus Nuclear Graph
Mass-energy equivalence deals with the release of
large amounts of energy from nuclear reactions. An
example of a nuclear reactor would be U-238. In
the name of relativity, energy and mass is
significantly the same thing, hence, making the
mass of a U-238 nucleus equivalent to the sum of
masses of the 238 nucleons that makes the nucleus
up. With mass-energy equivalence, work is no
longer equal to the product of force and distance.
An example of mass-energy equivalence would be
going into the U-2...
Structure And Bonding Covalent Bond
In my essay on the structure and bonding in
different substances, I am going to focus on
electronic arrangement and their effects on the
properties of the substance. METALIC BONDING
Metallic bonding occurs between atoms with low
electronegativity (. i. e. 1, 2 or 3 valence
electrons); therefore there are many vacancies in
valence shell. The crystal lattice of metals
consists of ions NOT atoms. When electron clouds
overlap, electrons can move into electron cloud of
adjoining atoms. The outer ele...
Sodium Channel Channels Current Nerve
A Summary: Ion Channels In The Nerve-CellA
Summary: Ion Channels In The Nerve-Cell Membrane A
Summary: Ion Channels in the Nerve-Cell Membrane
In this article, Richard D. Keynes details the
workings of ion channels in nerve cell membranes.
Nerve impulses (action potentials) are the unit by
which information travels in an organism? s
nervous system, and the generation of this action
potential is dependent on the nerve membrane being
permeable to ions which in turn makes said
membrane excitable. E...
Acid And Bases Conclusion
Acids Acid And Bases Conclusion: Acids appear in
products people use every day. To start, an acid
is a compound that releases hydrogen ions in
water. In order to find out if a substance is an
acid, one must test it with litmus paper and a pH
scale. On the pH scale acids measure from 1 to 6,
pH 1 being the most acidic (the highest
concentration of hydrogen ions). One example of an
everyday product that is an acid is lemon juice
which is used for cooking. Lemon juice has a pH
of 1, this means tha...
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