• Hardness Of Water Edta Ppm Tap
    2,333 words
    Water is the most important molecule that exists on the Earth. Without water living beings would not be able to live. Water is used for an immeasurable number of things. There are many properties of water, which makes this molecule so unique. One which people overlook is hardness. Hardness is defined in the Chemistry: The Central Science by Prentice Hall's as being "water that contains a relatively high concentration of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, and other divalent cations." Water containing these ions is no...
  • Flow Chart Precipitate Ions Unknown
    2,245 words
    Qualitative analysis is used in the determination of the identity of a substance. It is different from quantitative analysis, which deals with the determination of the amount of a substance. In this experiment, qualitative analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not a sample contains a certain ion. When using this method, an unknown and a reactant are mixed. The result of the reaction leads to a conclusion about the presence or absence of certain ions in the unknown. Many ions react...
  • Atp Production Kreb S Cycle
    897 words
    ATP Production Metabolism, which encompasses glycolysis, the Kreb s cycle, and the electron transport system, occurs in the mitochondria of cells. The mitochondria consist of a double membrane and an inner compartmentalization called the matrix. Each of the processes of metabolism occurs in specific locations in and around the mitochondria. The process of glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm just outside the outer membrane of the mitochondria. The Kreb s cycle occurs within the matrix and the elec...
  • Sulfuric Acid Lead Ions Battery
    459 words
    Acids & Bases An acid is any compound that can respond to a base to form a salt. Also, it is a substance that generates the positive ion of the solvent where the acid is dissolved. A base is the opposite of an acid. It is a substance that eliminates the hydrogen ions (protons) from an acid and joins them through a chemical reaction. Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is an extremely strong acid. Concentrated sulfuric acid is a strong dehydrating agent, which reacts violently with water. In aqueous sol...
  • Hardness Ion Water Hard Ions
    762 words
    Solutions & Solubility Pure water, which is an odour less, colorless, and tasteless substance is often called the universal solvent. As water moves through soil, it dissolves very small amounts of minerals such as calcium and magnesium. The greater the content of calcium and magnesium, the more hard the water is. Therefore, hard water is the result of an excess of two elements, C and Mg. The hardness of water is measured in grains per gallon (gig), milligrams per litre (mg / l ) or parts per mi...
  • Ionic Bond Solutions Of Lead Nitrate
    557 words
    When ionic solids dissolve, they divide to give their positive and negative ions that make up the solids. These ions become hydrates and have the same relative proportions when in solution and when solid. The more the solid dissolves, the more the ion's concentration increases. This increase and build-up allows for the reverse reaction to occur. In this phase of the reaction the ions crystal lise out in order for the reaction to have a greater chance of occurring. Eventually the rate of dissolvi...
  • Resistance Of Wire Length Electrons Doubles
    301 words
    A imI am going to be studying the resistance of wire. The purpose of this investigation is to see how the length of wire affect the dependent variable, resistance. Prediction I predict that, as the length of the wire doubles, the resistance will also double, This means that the length will affect the resistance. Hypothesis Resistance is caused by electrons bumping into ions. If the length of the wire is doubled, the electrons bump into twice as many ions so there will be twice as much resistanc...
  • Bonding And Elements Boiling Points
    465 words
    Element a substance which cannot be broken down into two or more substances by any means. Only contains one type of atom. Compound a substance in which atoms of two or more elements have been chemically combined. Ionic Bonding. Metals bonding with non-metals. Involves transfer of electrons from metal to non-metal, so that both species obtain full outer shell electron configurations (Noble gas configuration)... Metals lose electrons to form positive ions (Cations)... Non-metals gain electrons to...
  • Transition Metals Electron Configuration
    539 words
    Name Symbol Electron Configuration Scandium S Titanium TVanadiuChromium C Manganese MIron F Cobalt C Nickel Copper C 10 4 s 1 Zinc Z 10 4 s 2 As Chromium and Copper are in the fourth period we would expect it to follow the same pattern as the other elements in the same periods as in the 4 s sub shell is filled first rather than the 3 d sub shell. Chromium (Cr) Expected Electronic ConfigurationActual Electron Configuration The arrangement [Ar] 3 d 5 4 s 1 is more stable than the arrangement [Ar] ...
  • Unknown Solution Ions Turns Test
    796 words
    Qualitative Analysis of Cations Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the separation and identification of metal ions based on the insolubility of certain salts. The solubility rules should be taken into account. If a solution dissolves in water, the result contains both cations and anions. Analyzing different ions to discover their nature is the main goal of this experiment. Separation of the cations by testing the differences in solubility of different metal salts is d...
  • Mass Spectrometer Water Ions Charged
    533 words
    Mass Spectrometer A mass spectrometer produces charged particles (ions) from the chemical substances that are to be analyzed. The mass spectrometer then uses electric and magnetic fields to measure the mass (weight) of the charged particles. There are many different kinds of mass spectrometers, but all use magnetic and / or electric fields to exert forces on the charged particles produced from the chemicals to be analyzed. A basic mass spectrometer consists of three parts: 1. A source in which ...
  • Cellular Respiration Hydrogen Ions
    1,966 words
    Introduction Once the energy that was in sunlight is transformed into chemical energy, the organism has to now convert the chemical energy into a usable form. It may seem a bit odd for they " re still to be more steps. After all, when we eat a candy bar isn't the sugar in the candy bar "burnt" by the body to provide energy? Well the answer is yes and no. First of all when we burn something normally in the air we combine that substance with oxygen releasing energy from the substance. Indeed, an a...
  • The Nervous System Cell Body Neurons
    580 words
    The nervous system is composed of two main cell types the neurons and glial cells. Neurons transmit nerve messages and glial cells are in direct contact with neurons and often surround them. The basic function of the nervous system is as follow. They receive sensory input from internal and external environment, the integrate the input a they respond to stimuli. The nervous system also consists of senses. These senses are: pain, vision, taste, smell, and hearing. The neuron is the functional uni...
  • White Precipitate Ions Add Presence
    683 words
    Anions and cations can be identified using a variety of chemical tests. Because some ions produce similar results with one test, other confirmatory tests are essential. ANIONS CARBONATE IONS - add dilute nitric acid If the mixture effervesces (releases CO 2 gas), carbonate ions are present. To test that it is CO 2 gas, preform a limewater test. CO 32- + 2 H+  H 2 CO 3 (s) To confirm the presence of carbonate ions, add a few drops of the solution on to universal paper. A pH of 8-11 confi...
  • Gel Electrophoresis Bromphenol Blue
    589 words
    During gel electrophoresis, applying 130 volts of electricity through the water (or buffer) can cause drastic pH changes. Because of these pH changes, a buffer (a substance that prevents large pH changes) is required. However, several different combinations of the buffers and gels can be used, and each should be tested to determine which is best. This experiment was done to determine which of three buffer and gel combinations is best for using gel electrophoresis with bromphenol blue. Three diff...
  • Investigating Hard And Soft Water
    699 words
    INTRODUCTION: Water that contains calcium and magnesium ions is called "hard water" because calcium and magnesium ions can combine with other ions and compounds to leave a hard scale on the surfaces they touch. Hard water may be a troublesome in household water supplies. Fortunately, there are simple solutions to hard water problems. Hard water can be softened by the removal of metallic ions responsible for the hardness. This is known as water softening. Softened water is desirable in the bathtu...
  • Mass Energy Equivalence Nucleus Nuclear Graph
    741 words
    Mass-energy equivalence deals with the release of large amounts of energy from nuclear reactions. An example of a nuclear reactor would be U-238. In the name of relativity, energy and mass is significantly the same thing, hence, making the mass of a U-238 nucleus equivalent to the sum of masses of the 238 nucleons that makes the nucleus up. With mass-energy equivalence, work is no longer equal to the product of force and distance. An example of mass-energy equivalence would be going into the U-2...
  • Structure And Bonding Covalent Bond
    2,793 words
    In my essay on the structure and bonding in different substances, I am going to focus on electronic arrangement and their effects on the properties of the substance. METALIC BONDING Metallic bonding occurs between atoms with low electronegativity (. i. e. 1, 2 or 3 valence electrons); therefore there are many vacancies in valence shell. The crystal lattice of metals consists of ions NOT atoms. When electron clouds overlap, electrons can move into electron cloud of adjoining atoms. The outer ele...
  • Sodium Channel Channels Current Nerve
    888 words
    A Summary: Ion Channels In The Nerve-CellA Summary: Ion Channels In The Nerve-Cell Membrane A Summary: Ion Channels in the Nerve-Cell Membrane In this article, Richard D. Keynes details the workings of ion channels in nerve cell membranes. Nerve impulses (action potentials) are the unit by which information travels in an organism? s nervous system, and the generation of this action potential is dependent on the nerve membrane being permeable to ions which in turn makes said membrane excitable. E...
  • Acid And Bases Conclusion
    348 words
    Acids Acid And Bases Conclusion: Acids appear in products people use every day. To start, an acid is a compound that releases hydrogen ions in water. In order to find out if a substance is an acid, one must test it with litmus paper and a pH scale. On the pH scale acids measure from 1 to 6, pH 1 being the most acidic (the highest concentration of hydrogen ions). One example of an everyday product that is an acid is lemon juice which is used for cooking. Lemon juice has a pH of 1, this means tha...