Biology 1. The virus is made up of five parts and is in the size range of 10 nm-300 nm in diameter. The first is the coat made up of protein that protects the virus to a point. Next is the head that contains the genetic material for the virus. The genetic material for a virus is DNA. The two other parts are the tail sheath and the tail fibers that are used for odd jobs.

I believe that a virus is not considered to be a living creature due to the fact it is a parasitic reproducer. To me it is just like ripping up a piece of paper because it is still the same thing and it isn't carrying out any other function besides reproduction. Since the virus cannot continue to do its functions without taking from a host and being a parasite it is considered an obligated parasite. 2. The adult fern plant in its dominate generation (sporophyte) develops sporangium on one side of its leaf.

When meiosis is finished inside the sporangia and the spores are completed the annulus dries out releasing the spores. The spore germinates and grows into a prothallus which is the gametophyte generation. The and the archegonia are developed on the bottom of the prothallus. The archegonia are at the notch of the prothallus and the are located near the tip. Fertilization occurs when outside moisture is present and the sperm from the swim to the eggs of the archegonia. A zygote is formed on the prothallus and a new sporophyte grows.

4. Flowering plants have unique characteristics that help them survive. One is the flower itself that contains the reproductive structures. The color of the flower helps because it may attract birds and insects that spread the plants pollen which diversify the later generation of plants. Flowers also produce fruits that protect their seeds and disperses them with the help of fruit eating animals. 5.

Fungi, Animalia, and, Plantae are all believed to be evolved fromProtista. All 3 of these kingdoms are eukaryotic and their cells have a nucleus and all the other organelles. Fungi live on organic material they digest, Plants produce their own organic material, and Animals go out and find their food. Animalia are heterotrophic whereas Plantae are photosynthetic.

Fungi who digest their own food on the outside are different from animals who digest their food on the inside. Plants and animals both have organs systems but animals have organized muscle fibers and plants do not. 8. The Gasreopoda, Pelecypoda, and the Cephalapoda all have three of the same characteristics. The first one is the visceral mass that includes internal organs like a highly specialized digestive tract, paired kidneys, and reproductive organs. The mantle is the second one.

It is a covering that doesn't completely cover the visceral mass. The last one is the foot that can be used for movement, attachment, food capture, or a combination of these. The Gastropods are the snails and slugs. They use their foot for crawling and their mantle (shell) to protect their visceral mass.

The class Pelecypoda consists of clams, oysters, scallops, and mussels. These animals have two shells that are hinged together by a strong muscle and these shells protect the visceral mass. They use their foot for making threads so they can attach to things. Cephalopods consist of octopuses, squids, and nautiluses. These guys use their mantle cavity to squeeze water out and causes locomotion.

The foot has evolved into tentacles around the head that are used to catch prey. Nautiluses have an external shells, squids have smaller but internal shell and octopuses lack shells entirely. 9. The word Arthropod means jointed foot which come to some of the features of an arthropod that are the jointed appendages, compound eyes, an exoskeleton, and a brain with a ventral solid nerve cord.

The class Crustacea has compound eyes and five pairs of appendages two of which are sensory antenn i. Some examples are shrimp, cray, lobsters, and crabs. Insecta has 900, 000 species in its class. For example in a grasshopper they have compound eyes with five pair of appendages, three that are legs, one of which is for hopping, and two pairs of wings. Spiders that belong to the class Arachnid ia have six pair of appendages. The first pair of appendage are modified fangs and the second pair are used for chewing.

The other four are walking legs ending in claws. Spiders don't have compound eyes, instead, they have simple eyes. More examples are scorpions, ticks, mites, and chiggers. To similar classes are Diplopoda andChilopoda because they are segmented in the same way and each segment has a pair of walking legs but in the Diplopoda some segments fuse together and seem to have two pair of legs to one segment.

10. The Phylum Chordata contains creatures that would have bilateral symmetry, well developed coelo m, and segmentation. In order to be placed in this phylum they must have had a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a dorsal supporting rod called a notochord, and gill slits or pharyngeal pouches sometime in their life history. In the subphylum Uro chordata the only one of the three traits they carry on into adulthood is the gill slits.

In their tadpole form of their life they contained all three of these characteristics. Subphylum Cephalochordate retain all three qualifications into adult form and have segmented bodies. In subphylum Vertebrata it has all three traits as usual but its notochord is replaced by a vertebral column. 11. In these fish the sac-like lungs were placed at the end of the fishes digestive tract.

In their case when the oxygen level in the water they were in was low they could still collect oxygen by breathing. After time these sac-like lungs became swim bladders that control the up and down motion of a fish. 12. The reptiles most helpful advancement in reproduction that helped them live on land was the use of internal fertilization and the ability to lay eggs that are protected by shells.

The shells got rid of the swimming larva stage and the eggs did everything inside of the shell. The eggs membranes that protect the embryo, get rid of wastes, and give the embryo oxygen, food, and water. Inside the shell there is a membrane called the amnion and is filled with fluid and is used as a pond where the embryo develops and keeps the embryo from drying out. 13. The three subclasses of mammalia all have hair and mammary glands that produce milk. Each of these classes also have well developed sense organs, limbs for movement, and an enlarged brain.

In the subclass Prototherian the animals lay their eggs in a burrow and incubate. When the young hatch they receive milk by licking it off the modified sweat glands that are seeping milk. Subclass Metatherian the young begin developing inside the female but are born ata very immature age. The newborn crawl into their mothers pouch and begin nursing.

While they are nursing they continue to develop. With the subclass Eutheria the organisms contain a placenta that exchanges maternal blood with fetal blood. The young develops inside the mothers uterus and exchanges nutrients and wastes until it is read to be born.