Young Offenders Act in Canada The subject of young offenders in our troubled society has been one that has generated many hours of thought and meditation for concerned members. It is felt by many that the change needed in the area of delinquency within the First Nations culture is to overcome the effects of colonization and this must begin with the youth. It is with the youth that the future of the culture lies. There has been extensive research done in this area and although much of the material is not directed at one specific culture in society, the facts remain that it is a problem that is growing in epidemic proportions.
Many of the programs that exist in society today do not address the problems associated with young offenders of specific cultures. Although the trend is moving in a direction that addresses programs for specific cultural groups much more emphasis must be put on these programs. For First Nations youth that are locked into the juvenile system, there must be alternative treatment programs made available that deal with the problems associated with the colonization process that generations of First Nations people have been subjected to. The process of decolonization will only be achieved through education, understanding, and perseverance, and this can only be achieved by First Nations people working with First Nations people. As indicated earlier much research has been done on the problems associated with young offenders and the current treatment programs. In the following research some of the most recent and important pieces have been used and to eliminate repetition much has been deemed unnecessary.
Bibliography Cooke, David J. , Baldwin, Pamela J. , Howison, Jacqueline. (1990). Psychology in Prisons. London: Routledge.
In the second chapter of this book the authors explain in detail the psychology of criminal behavior and how it develops at a young age. Early environment of the adolescent, along with socio-economic status of the young offenders are but a few of the possibilities explored in this book. The authors explore the many influences that can shape the lives of young people, the influences of feelings and thoughts, others behavior, and surroundings, are all thought to shape the minds of the young offender. This publication will be primarily used to explore the history and causes of the subject of young offenders.
Davidson II, William S. , Red nor, Robin, . (1990). Alternative Treatments for Troubled Youth: The Case of Diversion From The Justice System. New York: Plenum Press.
This publication presents the findings of a research study done on alternative interventions with delinquent youth. The authors goal in writing this book was to describe an alternative intervention model and to examine its workability in the existing system. The authors in their research show that the intervention programs in the past have been ones of failure. It is believed that the success of intervention programs must be researched in such a way that all variables are considered before a program is to be implemented. One of the major problems discovered in their findings is the lack of professionalism in the implementation of these intervention programs, hence many of the programs operating today are destined for failure.
Griffiths, Curt T. , Verdun-Jones, Simon N. (1994). Canadian Criminal Justice. Toronto: Harcourt Brace. This publication is a prime source of material as it covers a multitude of areas pertaining to young offenders.
This book addresses some of the cultural issues such as policing and community aspects of the troubled youth. The author takes a close look into sensitizing the criminal system and addresses the problems of cultural awareness for the justice personnel. There is an excellent chapter in the book that looks at programs for youth in different parts of the country and explores the possibilities of alternative programs targeted for marginal peoples. Ottawa, Canada. (1993). Dept.
of Justice. Toward Safer Communities: Violent and Repeat Offending by Young People. This journal was presented in an attempt to help the government re-establish their stand that they are addressing the problems of young offenders in the community. This publication was primarily focused toward strengthening the governments stand that they are moving in a forward direction. The material in the journal primarily points in the direction that the age for young offenders should be lowered for some offences and that stiffer penalties should be invoked for many repeat offenders. It was clear that this would be an excellent piece of material to use as a basis for the argument that the government is not moving in a positive direction to address the problems of repeat young offenders.
Ottawa, Canada. (1986). Canadian Association for Children and Adults with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disabilities and the Young Offenders: Arrest to Disposition.
This publication investigates how the young offenders act in many ways does not address adequately the special problems that some young offenders a refaced with. Like those of the population with learning disabilities many young people are processed through the system without knowing the importance of these actions. It is made clear that even though the young offender is accompanied by parent or adult, in some cases the parent or guardian also does not have the ability of understanding the seriousness and the legalities of the situation the child is in. The authors of this paper make it clear that there are some serious problems with this system and that safe guards must be implemented to ensure that as few as possible cases of this type slip through the system. This publication is an important piece as it shows clearly that improved systems are needed in dealing with the young offender, and that much of the process should be initiated within the family and community. Toronto, Canada.
Canadian Bar Association - Continuing Legal Education.'s aturday, November 14, 1992.' The Young Offenders Act: significant trends for the 90 s. The articles that were presented in this issue is primarily directed at the increasing need for community involvement in the issue of juvenile delinquency and reforms necessary to control this problem. The articles tend to lead the reader to see that the community must become involved in the control of the young people. With the rise in juvenile crime it is a problem that evolves with each new law that is designed to protect the public.
What was once a question of young teenagers has become a problem of children from the ages of seven years and up. One of the articles stated that each community should resume control of their young people and work with the families so that they can become more educated in the treatments and skills necessary to curb this problem. This article is important to this research as the information provided confirms the fact that the management of the young offenders must start in the home and community. Schwartz, Ira M. (1989).
(In) Justice For Juveniles: Re-Thinking The Best Interests of The Child. Toronto: Lexington Books. The author of this book has worked in the juvenile justice area for over twenty years and has discovered that there is much needed work to be done to develop equality for juvenile offenders. The author believes that the juvenile system lacks the due process given to many of the adult offenders and therefore the rights of juveniles are violated on a regular basis. The author describes how rights are abused, the conditions of confinement, and how abuses and unprofessional practises are commonplace in detention facilities. This is an excellent publication that provides a factual basis for the need to develop treatment programs that are more in tune to the needs of the juvenile offender.
Uel ing, Harold F. (1973). Correction of a Correctional Psychologist in Treatment of the Criminal Offender. Springfield: Charles C.
Thomas Publishing. The author of this book looks deeply into the need for evaluation and treatment of offenders at an early age. The author makes a stand that there are deep rooted problems within society that do not address the problems of youth. It is through this belief that the author sees the need to evaluate behavior traits of the young people at an early age.
This publication will be useful instating a case that treatment for criminal behavior should be initiated with the young people of society. West, Gordon W. (1984). Young Offenders and The State: A Canadian Perspective on Delinquency. Toronto: Harcourt Brice. The author of this book looks at the effects of labeling the young people and trapping them into a life of conflict.
The book also addresses the theory of sociological effects on delinquency. The author addresses some of the current treatment programs and also the lack of cultural approaches to the problems of young offenders. This is one of the publications that will be of use in examining the current treatment programs to explore the needs of new programs that meet the needs of society. Wood, Arthur Evans; Waite, John Baker. (1941). Crime And Its Treatment.
New York: American Book Company. Although this publication dates back the authors have made some valid discoveries in the approaches to the problems of crime and delinquency that have not changed over the years. The authors investigate the theory of the practice of punishment and delves into the extra-mural form of treatment like probation. The authors also make some concrete conclusions as to early interventions such as education, early diagnosis of mental disorders, and the strengthening of institutions such as the home, the church, and the school.