Observational Abilities Test INTRODUCTION What is true in the eyes of one, can be seen as a delusion in another. We, as a society, are made up of a dramatically diverse amalgam of cultures and abilities. Finding out what those differences are can help us reach a better understanding of each other, thus a more equitable relationship can be developed. Therefore, finding the observational abilities of a given group may help yield some interesting and valuable information.

In the following study several groups were tested on their observational abilities. In order to develop such a test, it was necessary to devise a structured approach for gathering and interpreting the information. Therefore, the scope of the test was formulated based on hypothesis testing. The following hypothesis was established as the criterion for the test: Null hypothesis (Ho): Males and females do not have different observational abilities Alternative Hypothesis (H 1): Males and females do have different observational abilities EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The study consisted of 3 groups of varying size and structure. During the initial phase, the members of the study were unaware that any test was being conducted.

The locations of the test were Wilford Hall Medical Center: Primary Care Meeting, University of the Incarnate Word: World Literature Class, and University of Texas at San Antonio: Business Statistics Class. The sample sizes and constructs were as follows: Wilford Hall Medical Center: 30 people - 19 (F) 11 (M) University of the Incarnate Word: 19 people - 9 (F) 10 (M) University of Texas at San Antonio: 32 people - 11 (F) 21 (M) The test subjects were all presented with the same scenario, given the normal degree of variation. The procedure of the test was as follows: - The instructor / manager was advised that a test would be conducted sometime during the period. - A male messenger with black hair and wearing a blue shirt and slacks, would enter the room unannounced. - The messenger would hand an envelope to the instructor. - The messenger would then say, 'This is from Debbie'.

- The messenger would then exit the room. The instructor / manager had been asked to wait 10 minutes, then the instructor / manager would pass out a form for the respondents to fill out (Results: Sample Form). All the data was compiled and corrected, then the data was inputted into the SPSS statistical program for analysis. Each correct answer on the form was given a value of 10 and each incorrect answer was given a value of 0. The male and female respondents were analyzed individually by sex and group (Results: Descriptive's), Then the relevant scores and data of the groups were evaluated against each other (Results: Observation Test - Mean Scores). RESULTS The following pages contain a sample test and the output of data retrieved from the study.

The programs used to evaluate and display the data were the SPSS Professional Statistical Software and Microsoft Excel. SAMPLE TEST FORM Please answer the following questions about the messenger that had previously entered the room. If you do not know the correct response then choose the 'unknown' option, please do not guess. Thank You! 1) Was the messenger male or female? > Male > Female > Unknown 2) What color was the messengers clothing? > Red > Black > Tan > Blue > Gray >Unknown 3) What was the messengers hair color? > Blond > Brown > Auburn > Black >Unknown 4) What did the messenger say to the instructor / manager ? > How are you today >This is from the Dean > This is a nice day > This is from Debbie > Unknown 5) What did the messenger hand the instructor / manager ? > An envelope > A large / thick book > Nothing > A folder > A pen and pencil > Unknown- Upon completion of this evaluation, please return it to the instructor / manager . This has been a study to evaluate the observational abilities of men and women. All information will be for the sole use this study.

Thank you for your assistance. CONCLUSION According to the analyzed data from this study, the Ho: Males and Females do not have different observational abilities, would be false. Therefore, the H 1: Males and Females do have different observational abilities, would be true. The basis for this conclusion are as follows: - All the mean scores of the female respondents were higher than that of the male respondents. - Individually, the majority of the female respondents answered more of the questions correctly. -Individually, the majority of the male respondents answered more of the questions incorrectly.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY In any study it is equally important to understand the limitations, a swell as prove the hypothesis. Therefore, it is necessary to outline the potential shortcoming of this study. The primary limitation of this study is the sweeping generalization of observation abilities, based solely on one scenario. In order to develop a more accurate conclusion, many more scenarios and elements would need to be implemented. The element of surprise could also be considered a possible limitation, for the participants may not have been in the frame of mind to be tested.

Having only one trial per group and taking into account the small population size, these elements could lend themselves to skewing the results adversely. The element of bias was not a consideration in the overall conclusions. Therefore, several potential bias could enter the study, such as that men may not normally notice personal attire, nor that any degree of attention may be paid to another male. The male may take more notice of a female messenger than that of a male messenger, and vise versa for the female.

The test in itself was limited in scope and application. The test was an all or nothing scoring system, not allowing for 'coming close'. The possibility of visual restrictions of the respondents (i. e.

poor sight, colorblindness) was not taken into account. Also, the test only had five questions, all of which were very specific, not allowing for further observations. Finally, the groups studied all had some degree of higher education and were all involved in a structured scenario, a classroom or a meeting. Therefore, this may not represent a proper cross-section of the general population. As for the general reliability of the study, it would serve as a good basis for further investigation. Also, it must be taken into account that the developer and administer of the study is not a professionally trained researcher.

The study unto itself could not be held to absolute accuracy, nor could it be an integral part of a larger study, rather it would be best utilized as a point of reference.