THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS In 500 B. C. the abacus was first used by the Babylonians as an aid to simple arithmetic. In 1623 Wilhelm Schick ard (1592 - 1635) invented a 'Calculating Clock'. This mechanical machine could add and subtract up to 6 digit numbers, and warned of an overflow by ringing a bell. J.

H. Mueller comes up with the idea of the 'difference engine', in 1786. This calculator could tabulate values of a polynomial. Mueller's attempt to raise funds fails and the project was forgotten. Schertz and his son Edward produced a 3 rd order difference engine with a printer in 1843 and their government agreed to fund their next project.

In 1886 Dorr D. Felt (1862 - 1930) invented the 'comptometer'. This was the first calculator where the operands are entered by just pressing keys. In 1889 in also invents the first printing desk calculator. Herman Hollerith (1860 - 1929) founded IBM (as the Tabulating Machine Company) in 1896. The company renames known as IBM in 1924.

In 1906 Lee D. Forest in America developed the electronic tube (an electronic value). Before this it would have been impossible to make digital electronic computers. In 1919 W. H.

Eccles and F. W. Jordan published the first flip-flop circuit design. George Sti bitz constructed a 1-bit binary adder suing relays in 1937. This was one of the first binary computers. In the summer of 1941 Atanasoff and Berry completed a special purpose calculator for solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, later called 'ABC' (Atanasoff Berry Computer).

In 1948 Mark I was completed at Manchester University. It was the first to use stored programs. In 1951 whirlwind was the first real-time computer was built for the US Air Defense System. In 1953 it was estimated that there were 100 computers in the world. Computers built between 1959 and 1964 are often regarded as the 'second generation' computers, based on transistors and printed circuits - resulting in much smaller computers. 1964 the programming language PL/1 released by IBM.

1964 the launch of IBM 360. These first series of compatible computers. In 1970 Intel introduced the first RAM chip. In 1975 IBM 5100 was released. In 1976 the Apple Computer Inc. was founded, to market Apple I Computer.

Designed to Stephen Wozinak and Stephan Jobs. In 1979 the first compact disk was released around 1981 IBM announced PC, the standard model was sold for $2, 880. 00. In 1994 according to Microsoft MS-DOS was running on some 100 million computers worldwide. In 1985 the CD-ROM was invented by Philips, and produced in collaboration with Sony. In November of 1985 Microsoft Windows was released.

Jim Burners - Lee, invented the World Wide Web in 1989. In 1993 doom was released by Id software Inc. The PC began to be considered as serious games playing machine. In 1994 Netscape 1. 0 was written as an alternative browser as NCSA Mosaic. In December of 1995 Javascript development was announced by Netscape.

In 1997, May 11 IBM's deep blue, was the first computer to beat a reigning would chess champion, Gary Kasparov, in a full chess match. On Jan. 19, 2000 Transmeta launched their new 'Crusoe' chips. And finally on Feb.

17, 2000 was the Official launch of Windows 2000. COMPUTER IN MOVIES Computers are beginning to be used in Movies and more. The movie 'Toy Story' was created by a computer in 3-D and so was it sequel. Computers add amazing special effect to movies.

Computers can create scenes in a movie without you not even being there. They also use computers to edit videos, cutting out scene not needed. Computers can also do difficult stunts instead of real people doing them. For example in the movie 'Anaconda' computer generated the snakes and also created some scenes with using the mechanical snake itself. I think computers have helped out movies a great deal. Without computers movies wouldn't be as good or would exist at all..