INTRODUCTION Ever since I have read turing test, AI and robotics have always fascinated me. I always wondered how a computer can compete human intelligence. When the first robot, its name, was commercially launched my fascination turned into the passion to take up research in the subject. Thus, I took up AI & Robotics as my research topic. AI is a branch of computer science, which deals with the study, and creation of computer systems that exhibit some kind of intelligence. Intelligent behaviour involves perception, reasoning, learning, communicating, and acting in complex environments.
Ai makes use of the human responses, facts and the data from the real world in different situations to make intelligent systems known as Knowledge Based Systems. The field of cognitive science overlaps AI. Cognitive scientists study the nature of intelligence from a psychological point of view, mostly building computer models that help elucidate what happens in our brains during problem solving, remembering, perceiving, and other psychological processes. One major contribution of AI and cognitive science to psychology has been the information processing model of human thinking in which the metaphor of brain-as-computer is taken quite literally.
One of major branch of Ai is robotics. A robot is a mechanical device that is programmed to perform using the knowledge, facts and results from either its past experiences or its environment (i-robots). EVOLUTION OF ROBOTS We humans tend to make errors with increasing fatigue. Humans are not capable of working for prolonged hours without taking breaks and hence are not flexible. The idea behind the creation of robots was to create a machine that will do what we tell it. The machine which could perform work with accuracy, and in no time.
Also a machine which could do the repetitive jobs of humans without getting tired. Robots were developed keeping in mind that they wont be having any emotions. It would be a simple machine that could move like humans, have arms and legs, grasp things and do work. A machine that works by remote control, like a machine that can be programmed to do. Robots, are as flexible as they can be. One can program them to work 24 X 7 without taking breaks.
HOW AI AND ROBOTICS IS RELATED Robot is a complex structure of different mechanical parts, each part performing a specified function. These parts work in accordance to achieve some predefined goals - construction and manufacturing process in industries, helping humans in daily lives etc. AI brings this mechanical juncture to life. AI enables robots to work effectively and efficiently. AI is incorporated in robots so that they can use the knowledge, process it and take the appropriate action. CATEGORIES OF ROBOTS The robots can be categorized as follows: o Industrial robot so Explorer robot so Laboratory robot so Domestic robot so Medical robot so Real world robots HOW THE ROBOTS WORK In order to build robots that live in this real world, they must interpret the things as we humans do and perform the action accordingly.
Thus, in the field of robotics, perception and action constitute an important part. Perception involves interpreting sights, sounds, smells and touch. Action includes the ability to navigate through the world and manipulate objects. Perception: All the living beings perceive the environment through many channels: sight, sound, touch, smell, taste etc. To make the real world robot, it also must process visual and auditory information. For this, they must be equipped with sensors such as laser rangefinders, speedometers and radar.
The most important sensory channels are vision and spoken language (audio). So a robot also perceives the things by these two channels only. Perceptual processing by autonomous robots: The example to be considered in perceptual processing is as follows: The robot is considered in two-dimensional grid-space. This robot's world is completely enclosed by boundaries.
The robot's expected behaviour is that it will go to a cell adjacent to a boundary and then follow that boundary along its perimeter forever. This behaviour is executed by sensing whether the adjacent cells are free to occupy or not. Action: The research is in process, regarding this topic. However it may be possible that it is not included in the research paper. FUTURE PROSPECTS (NEXT GENERATION ROBOTS) Presently scientists have been successful making specialized robots, having arms, limbs etc.
A SIMO was only one kind of robot that could walk and could talk a bit. But the next generation would be to replace humans. It has been given the name: android. An android is a highly intelligent robot that can compete to a human being. He would be able to replace human in some sense.
We would be able to talk to them. They would work as we do. They will read books and stories. They will think intelligently. They will be able to drive.
The next step would be giving biological identity to these androids. Then they could have feelings, tears etc. They could have skin that shows fatigue and all the stuff that human skin has. They will have their own nervous system but the brain would be a chip.
And so the android can be seen as a duplicate copy of human beings.