Renaissance, Reformation, and Expansion Test #1 Study Guide Church: - extremely wealthy: own best land, don't pay taxes - Want a THEOCRACY - Becoming corrupt: o Simony: selling of church offices (offices only in it for money, not religion) o Pluralism: Selling many offices to same person, owning more than one district o Immorality: Officers had mistresses and illegitimate children, stealing, drinking o Nepotism: Passing offices down to illegitimate children o Selling of Salvation Babylonian Captivity: 1309-1377 Period at which Popes live in Avignon, France instead of Rome. Leads to Great Schism: One pope in Rome, one pope in Avignon, and third pope elected to put out other two but other two wouldn't resign. 3 Councils created who tried to get Popes to resign but they wanted the power in turn. Result: all three popes resign and a new pope is elected to reside in Rome.
John Wycliffe: printed 1st bible in English - bad (now public knew what the truth was) John Huss (Prague): wanted a change in communion service, he was later Executed. Renaissance: "Rebirth" & Glorification of Man: -Began in Italy. There were 4 main reasons for this: o Good location: Trade, goods from east (spices) o Money o Competition: due to political organization of the 5 major city states (Naples, Papal, Venice, Florence, Milan) - all wanted to outdo each other Characteristics of the Renaissance: - Education: increased, spread o Humanism: a different emphasis on education, curriculum expanded. Levels were introduced. It was applied to the recovery of Latin and Greek Manuscripts. Leading writers: Dante, Petrarch, Boccacio (all focused on human characteristics.
Wrote in VERNACULAR) - Women not equal, but wealthy ones got more notice - Individualism - Valued Art / Sculpture - Versatility: You could be many different things -"Renaissance Man"- Michelangelo: arts focus on attributes of humanity in Renaissance Italy, science, military genius) - Secular: less emphasis on religious position, greater emphasis on man - Individualism: Stress of individual / Accomplishment developing talent, uniqueness. Then goes into Versatility (finding this talent in many areas and developing them to best of ability) Decline of Renaissance in Italy: - Fights broke out b / w Italy and France / Spain - 1492: America Discovered - Portuguese were stronger than Arabs and took over "Spice Islands" - Trade moved North instead of being through Italy - Not as Urban in Italy (not as much art / buildings ) - The North was more religious compared to Renaissance in South Ultimate Man of Northern Renaissance: ERASMUS - 1 of most knowledgeable people in Greece - Scholar - Committed to "cleaning up" church o Believed that Church and people should behave like Christ and the Apostle wanted to point out shortcomings and evoke change Used "Reason" to make change Method of operation: S attire Made fun of church to try and make them change - Chief work: Praise of Folly o Picked on church for not behaving like Christ Thomas Moore: wrote Utopia - "perfect place" non-existent Rabelais: French Scholar and writer - attacked Church indirectly in writings New Monarchs: Term given to a group of kings who tried to build a strong state in the late 1400's, early 1500's. - Tried to break down walls of Feudalism - Kings (new monarchs) tried to make their position the most powerful in their country Henry the 8th of England: - Wins the War of the Roses and establishes the Tudor line of kings / queens must now build kingdom up to become a new monarch o Secure Throne: marry Elizabeth of York (two sides comes together war ended) o Reassert royal authority and establish a court system to make sure royal justice gets done to everyone (Nobles included) Inquisition: trial to determine if you " re a good Catholic. You are not informed of what you " re being accused of until you get to court - Heretics were killed - Corruptions occurred within inquisition through payments to find out what you were being accused of so you could set up a defense - Inquisition was used to kick out Jews and Muslims Louis the 6th of the Valois Family of France: - raises army - has control over taxation - tries to keep nobility under control - cuts a deal with church o 1516: Concordat of Bologna: Pope can collect fees from bishops and archbishops for the first year as long as king gets to name who the bishops and archbishops are Powerful weapon for king in consolidating his power and putting it over the church's. Holy Roman Empire: - 300 cities and states o Princely states (lead by princes) o Ecclesiastical States o Imperial Free city (city that exists apart from a state) - Holy Roman Emperor o is elected by 7 cities and states (this weakens the emperor because he has to make promises to get elected. If he contains another form of leadership, then he is better off uses bribery) - In 1519 Charles gets elected Holy Roman Emperor (through bribery) Maximilian: (Charles's grandfather) - Rules Hapsburg lands AND Holy Roman Empire - Marries Mary of Burgundy (Netherlands now also run by Maximilian through marriage) o Son: Philip "the handsome" Ferdinand marries Isabella: (Spain, Southern Italy, and America) - Daughter: Joanna "the Mad" o Joanna marries Philip "the handsome" Son: Charles (Grandson of Maximilian) o father (Philip) dies he Charles inherits ALL land) o Charles 1st of Spain = Charles 5th of Hapsburg The Reformation: Luther: - opposed to selling indulgences - believed in SALVATION or justification of faith alone (not in bible) - tacks up list of things to debate denies Pope's authority - "Priesthood of all believers" o Man could go directly to God to get forgiveness and read bible to interpret meaning of it all by themselves - Only believed in 2 Sacraments: o Baptism o Holy Communion (These were the only two mentioned in Bible that Jesus did himself) - He was very scripturally based: "if it's not in the bible, it's not valid" - Didn't like Pope encouraged Princes to be the head of the Church o Pope wanted to excommunicate Luther and did so Luther burns letter of excommunication, he doesn't care.
- Trial for Luther at Worms in 1521: if Luther agrees he wrote all these things and wont go back on them, then he will be condemned as an outlaw o Luther refuses to deny them o Trial is basically a free pass to Germany to get out of Rome he " ll be killed for heresy o On way home after trial he is kidnapped by his prince and hidden in a castle in Saxony where Luther Translates the bible into German Charles does not capture him o After Trial Charles goes to Italy to fight Turks and French and when he returns it is too late and Lutheranism is already established Transubstantiation: Catholics believe bread / wine are transformed into body / blood during Holy Communion Consubstantiation: (believed by LUTHER = Lutherans) Believe that bread / wine are not actually body / blood but that Jesus is with them Calvinists: Believe that bread / wine are merely symbols of the body / blood. POLITICS AND RELIGION COME TOGETHER IN THE REFORMATION In 1555 Charles 5th declares the Religious Peace of Augsburg: - Each prince in each state can choose his own religion for his state o Two Choices: Lutheranism or Catholicism - Ends Charles's efforts for religious uniformity - GREATLY strengthens power of prince against Holy Roman Empire Calvinism: - Extremely scriptural - "You are saved by faith" (salvation through your faith) - Believed that the political side was NOT head of Church and that Church can exist apart from the state - Predestination: God predetermined who would to go Heaven and who would go to hell. The "elect" were those who went to Heaven (very small number) o believed that nothing man could do on earth could escape your predetermined destination BUT thought you should still work hard and be successful which is a sign of an elect. Difference between Calvinism and Lutheranism: - Calvinism can spread ANYWHERE whereas Lutheranism cant o Calvinist churches could exist anywhere. Services were very austere no music, 2 hours lecture Anglicans: Henry the 8th: - Married to Catherine of Aragon (2nd Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella) - Henry wants a son but wife is barren after 1 daughter (Mary) o wants marriage annulled from Catherine so that he can have son under wedlock which would allow son to be king o Uses excuse that God is punishing him for marrying brother's wife under old Pope's consent - Asks Pope for annulment: o Pope should agree to it because in 1520 Henry wrote a tract (article) which defended the Church and the Pope from attacks by Luther named Henry "Defender of the Faith" o BUT Pope denies annulment b / c Charles (Catherine's Nephew) is a bigger threat to him - Henry has a problem: he's infatuated with Anne Boleyn o She says she " ll only have sex with him if he divorces Catherine SO, Henry gets Parliament to pass law called the Act of Supremacy which puts Henry head of Church over Pope 1st thing he does is appoint a new Archbishop of Canterbury that can annul the marriage DOES - Henry Marries Anne Boleyn and child is born: Girl (Elizabeth) o After another child Anne is barren and Henry accuses her of adultery and beheads her - Henry marries Jane Seymour o Son: Edward - Right before Henry died he established the Order of Succession: o Made Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth legitimate children Edward: very protestant (Anglican Church Formed) Mary: Married to Philip the 2nd of Spain. She is VERY Catholic and believes it is the ONLY way Elizabeth: One of the greatest rulers of England: Politique Politique: someone who puts politics (state) over religion practical Elizabethan Settlement: A compromised version of Protestantism (Anglicanism) - Settles religious question - Wants Church that both Protestants and Catholics can feel comfortable in (non-extremists) o Establishes Anglican Church o Got Parliament to change name from "Head" (of Church) to Supreme Governor This kept power put lost title that could make men angry since she was a woman in power - Elizabeth never marries to protect throne and boundaries - Mary Queen of Scots (the heir of the throne) tries to kill Elizabeth o Elizabeth kills Mary for Treason o Heir is now James the 6th of Scotland becomes James 1st of England The Anabaptists (re-baptized): - The liberals of the Protestant movement - They were hated - only believed in adult baptism - took gospel literally (very) - believed in TOTAL separation of church and state o none of their members would serve in govn't or armed forces - Believed in Religious Toleration - believed each church community was separate Protestants, Lutherans, Calvinists, Anglicans: - ALL rejected Pope and Character of Priesthood Renaissance Art Characteristics: - Linear Perspective (draws eyes to one part) - Use of Shade / Light - Study of Anatomy (proportion of Human Body) - Patron Role (Church was not only Patron) - Oil used - Nature linked to Mathematics / Science - Showed emotions Catholics finally get their act together in Trent (meeting place): - Trying to handle 2 problems: o Abuses to Church o Luther, Calvin, etc. are rebelling against common beliefs - Goals: o Win Protestants back o Compromise - What they did: o Kept concept that faith and works were important for salvation BUT would not SELL salvation anymore o Verified what they believed didn't change anything o Trent cleaned up the abuses No more sales of Church Offices (Simony) No more pluralism A new order was created at the time of Trent: -Jesuits (society of Aesop) o Founded by Ignatius Loyola o Believed Pope needed a "spiritual Army" o Ignatius recruited the "Best and Brightest" to be in spiritual army o 4 vows: Obedience (in general) Chastity Poverty Obedience to Pope -Spiritual Army o Established schools and universities (best of the time) o became counselors and kings o lived among the people o had a tremendous influence in bringing people back to Catholic Church o they were hated and executed in Protestant areas The Commercial Revolution: - Opening Trade routes o heightened rivalries b / w states - Population Growth - Gradual rise of prices (economic change) o Goods cost more to make o General increase in population $ circulated faster o Currency was devalued o Wage Earners were hurt the most Signifies change to the Capitalistic Economic system Guild: Union of merchants that controlled production and pricing Commercial Revolution is the switch from the old revolution to the new revolution OLD ECONOMY NEW ECONOMY - basically local (towns and farms) -national economy (international focus) - People sold goods within the town and bought them from townspeople -2 new Groups: -New Entrepreneurs - Merchants (trade) Local trade limited production -Banking -Mining, Printing -Merchants work with Peasants to bypass guilds - Provides materials to peasants - they make products for pay - merchants take products into town to sell them for $ (profit) Kings set up Mercantilism - State controlled economy for state's benefit - Goals of Mercantilism: o Tried to establish a favorable balance of trade (export more than you import) Put a tax (tariff) on anything that was imported in so it would discourage buying them Govn't took away power from Guilds and lead to inflation o Make country self-sufficient (not practical) Brought in as much gold / silver as they could o Increase in harbors to ship out goods o Try to increase the internal transports (roads, railroads) Social Classes: - Nobility: (noble by birth) Aristocrats.
Status has nothing to do with wealth - Clergy: All people. Property never taxed by state - Bourgeoisie: Middle Class - Peasants: rural agricultural workers. (largest population) - Urban Workers: City artisans, day laborers Philip 2nd King of Spain: - Son of Charles - When he dies he splits up his territory between his son and brother o Son-Philip Spain America Netherlands Southern Italy o Brother - Ferdinand Austria Holy Roman Empire - cc 17 Provinces: - They don't want Philip's army in there - Don't want inquisition - Want their own government Charles 5th: Old king of Spain, resided in Netherlands Spanish don't like him Philip (the son) - Absolutely dedicated Christian Believes his job is to restore Catholicism at any cost - strongest power in continent - Resides in Spain, viewed as foreign to those in the Netherlands o he begins to tax the Netherlands Maddens Netherlands and causes a Revolt o they tear up Catholic Churches in riots o Philip sends in an army lead by the Duke of Alva - "Council of Blood": Convicts Protestants of heresy and Duke orders army to kill them - Protestants and Catholics join together to fight against Philip o Philip needs to stop rebellion and convince Catholics he's on their side Sends Duke of Parma to recapture 10 southern provinces Convinces them that Philip will respect their provinces and let them be separate 7 northern provinces unite and form a Utrecht o Army cant get them b / c they flood the dykes which allows them to stay separate Queen Elizabeth: - Establishes Protestantism in England and gives support to Protestants - Creates Anglican Church (protestant in nature, Catholic hierarchy) William of Orange: - Leader of 7 northern provinces until his assassination - Elizabeth sends aid to him to fight off those invading the 7 northern provinces through Sir Francis Drake (pirate) - Philip decides to fight back and attack England in order to get to the 7 provinces 1588: Spanish Armada vs. British Fleet - Spanish Armada: 130 ships, well armed - British Fleet: 200 ships, better armed better seamen - Result = a blowout, British win o In England: Secures English Independence Nobody will try to invade them again o Everybody rallied to Queen Elizabeth Even Catholics o Victory over Spanish was a unifying factor for England o Secures that 7 Northern Provinces will never be taken over by Spanish 1609: Truce b / w Spanish and Dutch 1648: Actual Independence for 7 Northern provinces - Overall was a war of o Economics o Politics o Religion French Wars of Religion Huguenots: French Protestants -Calvinism: Gives freedom from Rome and freedom from French King o People convert for political reason most of the time Group 1: - Huguenots - Protestants - Led by Bourbon Family - Want to rid country of Catholics - Want to control throne Group 2: - Guise family - Very Strong Catholics - want to rid country of Protestants - want to have kingship in family Group 3: (in the middle) - The Valois Family - moderate Catholics - Controls throne - When Margaret is set to marry Henry 4th, Catherine (mother) allows the Guise family to run a sneak attack on the Protestants o 3000 killed St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre o Henry 4th converts to Catholicism at last minute and escapes after wedding o Sparks wars b / w Protestants and Catholics until 1589 30 Years War: - International war to gain power - Religious struggle Protestant princes vs. Catholic princes - Political War Protestant princes vs. Holy Roman Emperor - Dynastic Struggle b / c France / Allies vs. the Hapsburg Problems: -Some princes wanted Calvinism, but only choices were Lutheran and Catholicism (Religious Peace of Augsburg) Defenestration of Prague: Protestants threw Catholic officials out window -started 30 years War Von Wallenstein: Hired by Holy Roman Emperor to fight against Protestants - Von was Protestant but was in fight for $ - Defeats Danes and drives them out of the German ies Holy Roman Emperor announces the Edict of Restitution: - All areas that were taken illegally since 1552 must be given back to original religion (peoples) o appears Catholics will not be successful Protestants need to make comeback - Richelieu and French pay Swedish to help Protestants against the Holy Roman Empire (French want independence from Holy Roman Empire) o French are Catholic but want to weaken Hapsburg (Holy Roman Empire) and Spanish Bring in Gustavus Adolf us to fight Holy Roman Empire Wallenstein is assassinated when trying to switch sides to help Protestants - Edict of Restitution is renounced because they lost to the Swedes Treaty that ended War: Treaty of West Philia - settles question of religious warfare - Religious Peace of Augsburg reinstated with Calvinism - Each Prince earns right to control state Results of War: - Holy Roman Empire as a whole is destroyed not unified - Sweden gains land - France gains land achieves purpose of weakening Hapsburg - Dutch become independent - Spanish give up - Danes continue to hold territory - b / c of 30 years War Germany was devastated o No German Unification for 200 years - Portugal breaks.