Introduction: Picture this, you " re driving and the person in front of you is completely oblivious to what's going on, and your thinking, what is this person doing. You pull up next to them and look, and see that they are engaged in a full conversation on their cell phone. Then all of a sudden you look in your review mirror and this person behind you is about to rear end you. What do you know, the person is on the cell phone too.

Or maybe this, you " re driving by yourself and you " re listening to your music and your cell phone rings. You go to reach for your phone, in your pocket or purse, and then you look up and "Oh my God, that was a close call". Your heart is racing and you " re really scared cause you almost ran off the side of the freeway. Believe it or not, this happens everyday, and is only growing. Thesis: The use of cell phones while driving should be banned due to their dangerous potential. Blame Claim 1: With the growth of cell phones they are becoming more popular then ever.

Warrant 1: In the year 2000, cell phones hit their prime. Everyone around either wants a cell phone or is purchasing them. There are the simpler cell phones to the high tech phones. However, instead of a cell phone being a luxury, it has now become a necessity. Ground 1: "Cell phone use is growing at a rate of 40% a year, and is likely to top 80 million users by next year". (Concern voiced over phoning while driving, Drew Sullivan.) Ground 2: "There are currently 88 million cell phone users in this country alone.

There are 40,000 new subscribers everyday. The rate of subscribership exceeds the birth rate. A prevention magazine survey in 1995 reported that 85% of cell phone owners use their phones while driving at least some of the time". (An Investigation of Wireless Communications in Vehicles, Fran Bents.) Ground 3: "Today, cellular telephones are owned by more than 50 million Americans and new technological breakthroughs have seen a migration from analog to digital architectures along with the recent introduction of " Personal Communication Services (PCS) " as a competitor to the cellular market".

(An Investigation of the Safety Implications of Wireless Communications in Vehicles.) Claim 2: Cell phones do cause a distraction. Warrant 2: Now that more and more Americans have cell phones, the distraction of using cell phones while driving is rising. There are more phones marketed, and more people buying them and becoming distracted. Ground 1: "A survey by Prevention Magazine indicated that 18% of respondents believed that their use of cellular telephones is distracting while they were driving, while 85% of the respondents use their cellular telephone while driving at least occasionally.

It also indicated that 70% of the drivers found cellular telephone use to be the same or more distracting than tuning a radio". (An Investigation of the Safety Implications of Wireless Communications in Vehicles.) Ground 2: "There are 3 major causes; number one is visual. Looking away from the roadway would be an example of this. Number two, is mechanical, such as dialing a number or looking for your phone. This can also be associated with a visual distraction. The third is cognitive; an example of this is being "lost in though".

We have all had the experience of traveling from point A to point B and then realizing that we aren't sure how we got there". (An Investigation of Wireless Communications in Vehicles, Fran Bents.) Ground 3: "The inattention and distraction created by the use of a cellular telephone while driving is similar to that associated with other distractions in increasing crash risk". (An Investigation of the Safety Implications of Wireless Communications in Vehicles.) Claim 3: With the growth of technology, cell phones have been made with more distracting features. Warrant 3: The world in the eyes of mass communication has change though out the years.

The technology of many things has gotten more elite and interesting for the world today. For instance, cell phones now have features that make it able to check emails and stocks, send faxes, and surf the web. Ground 1: "Already growing at a rate of 40% per year, the use of cellular communications is likely to increase as wireless Internet access, fax machines, and televisions are introduced. According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 85% of all cellular customers are using the devices while driving". (Cell Phone Use While Driving Increases Crash Risk, Gay Frankenfield.) Ground 2: "As the use of in-vehicle wireless communications technology increases there will be an associated increase in related crashes if little changes". (An Investigation of the Safety Implications of Wireless Communications in Vehicles.) Ground 3: " This trend is such that cellular communications can now be the focal point of a truly "mobile office", including e-mail, fax and Internet services in addition to telephone, voice mail, and paging capabilities from any location".

(An Investigation of the Safety Implications of Wireless Communications in Vehicles.) Harm Claim 4: Cell phone use while driving can lead to more accidents and the rate of crashes has gone up. Warrant 4: The use of cell phones while your driving is dangerous. Because Americans are in denial of the distraction, the rate of nearby crashes and crashes has gotten higher. Ground 1: "According to a survey by Framers Insurance Group, 87% of adults believe that using a cell phone while driving impairs a person's ability to drive". (New survey shows Drivers have had 'Close Calls' with cell phone Users, Farmers Ins.) Ground 2: "While only 2% of drivers said they had been in an accident in which one of the drivers was using a cell phone, more than 40% reported to have had close calls or near misses with a driver who was on the phone". (New survey shows Drivers have had 'Close Calls' with cell phone Users, Farmers Ins.) Ground 3: "According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations, 78 people died nationally in 1997 in accidents in which cell phones or hand-held radios were a contributing factor".

(Concern voiced over phoning while driving, Drew Sullivan.) Ground 4: "A 1997 study, reported in the New England Journal of Medicine indicates that drivers are four times more likely to have automobile accidents while using cellular phones. The study also revealed that the risk was the same when drivers utilized "handsfree" phones. They also stated that using a cell phone with driving is equal to drinking and driving. The study cited the risk of collision quadruples when talking on a cell phone".

(Cell Phone Use While Driving Increases Crash Risk, Gay Frankenfield.) Claim 5: Even if you think your more responsible then others, crashes while talking on the cell phone, can happen to anyone. Warrant 5: No matter your age, or your life status, car crashes can happen to anyone. We are invincible, or so that's what we think. A fatal crash or a fender bender can happen to us all and just the little distraction can do, like talking on a cell phone. Ground 1: "In Roberts, Smith Barney, a stockbroker, was driving and talking on his cell phone one Saturday evening while on his way to a non-business related dinner. En route to the restaurant, his car hit and killed a 24-year-old motorcyclist, a father of two".

(A Risky Call, Heather Alston.) Ground 2: "Older drivers will often find it more challenging to operate cellular telephones that tend toward small displays and controls designed to specifications drawn from a younger population". (Age related decrements in automobile instrument panel task performance, Hayes.) Ground 3: "I watched my daughter die, says Patrica Pena, her daughter was killed in her car seat when the car in which she was riding was truck by a motorist using a cell phone". (Cell Phone Use While Driving Increases Crash Risk, Gay Frankenfield.) Transition: As you can see, cell phones are very dangerous to everyone. It only takes one look down, and then your life can be a lot harder then before. If you can think of everyone else and yourself, maybe you will think again before you reach down for that cellular phone. Solution Claim 6: There are many ways to help and prevent the accidents that are happening with the use of cellular phones while driving.

Warrant 6: We can help with the rate of accidents, by simply following the rules. They are not laws yet, however if we can make them laws now, we can save many Americans today. With just a little help and understanding from others, we can make cell phones while driving safer. Ground 1: "In a new report on wireless communications, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration encouraged state and local officials to begin tracking cell phone use in related traffic warnings, citations, and crash investigations". (Cell Phone Use While Driving Increases Crash Risk, Gay Frankenfield.) Ground 2: " Motorists may want to pull over or use hands-free technology, and should avoid emotional or stressful conversations". (Cell Phone Use While Driving Increases Crash Risk, Gay Frankenfield.) Ground 3: "Parkes in 1993 introduced the concept of an 'intelligent answerphone' as a system that would divert, record, and interrupt messages appropriately based on sensed driving conditions".

(An Investigation of the Safety Implications of Wireless Communications in Vehicles.) Claim 7: There should be a ban on using cell phones while driving. Warrant 7: Without a cell phone to distract you, you can concentrate more while driving. Ground 1: " If people can't talk on their phones they can focus on the traffic and thus the cell phone related accidents would decrease". (Further on the road tests of driver interference, Green.) Ground 2: " In November, Japan became one of 14 countries banning handheld phone use while driving. Accidents caused by the use of mobile phones dropped by 75% the next month". (An Investigation of Wireless Communications in Vehicles, Fran Bents.) Conclusion: The available evidence is accurate to support the conclusion that the use of cell phones while driving is dangerous and does cause accidents.

It appears reasonably plausible, particularly in light of the trends in the data, the growing complexity of the technology, and the inherent distraction potential of using such devices from a moving vehicle. Thus, many may feel a loss in freedom, however a little restriction can help many and go a long way. So just remember, when you pick up that cellular phone in a car, make sure you are aware of how dangerous it can be. Sources Alston, Heather.

A risky call, Dec. 1999. Bents, Fran. (1997) An investigation of wireless communications in vehicles. Frankenfield, Gay. Cell phone use while driving increases crash risk. Green, Hoekstra.

(1993). Further on-the-road tests of driver interfaces. Hayes, Kurosawa. (1989).

Age-related decrements in automobile instrument panel task performance. Sullivan, Drew. Concern voiced over phoning while driving. Farmers Insurance Study.

New survey shows drivers have had 'close calls' with cell phone users. An investigation of the safety implications of wireless communications in vehicles, Nov. 1997..