Byers 1 Jesse P. Byers Mrs. Sear English 3 Period 4 13 February 1998 Programming The Future of The World Computers have advanced remarkably. It started with first generation computers such as the EN IAC which used vacuum tubes. This computer was huge and eventually out dated (Litterick 29). Next were computers that used transistors. They were more reliable, they used one thirteenth of the space of a tube, one twentieth the electricity, and one fifteenth less heat than tubes (31). Integrated circuits were next, these were smaller, faster, and more powerful than anything before.

Now microchips are in computers making it able for the computer addict to program. One of the available fields is application programming (33-34) Application programming is a very detailed field that is very rewarding and high in demand. Application programmers often work long odd hours. Some may even work up to eighty hours per week. Individuals in this field are also required to stay current on programming languages (Eberts 28). One of the advantages of this career is you may be able to work at home (Southworth 56).

If you choose to be an application programmer be specific. Computers follow the program exactly which Byers 2 includes any errors. Breaking and analyzing problems into a series of steps and debugging is a major part of programming (46). Some programmers are high school students with little or no training but most programmers have college degrees.

Bachelor degrees in computer science or engineering are adequate for this career (Eberts 31). If programming is your chosen career there are two fields, application programming and system programming (28). The difference between the two is that systems programmer program actual systems while application programmers program tasks that need to be done. Programmers use technical manuals when customizing programs to interface with their system (35). This is called documenting. Programmers also must test the software repeatedly to make sure the program is able to handle the information provided correctly and that there are no weaknesses (33).

Computer programming is a career field that is very high in demand. This means that there are many jobs available. Business, scientific, and general purpose programming are the three main fields (Southworth 54). Business programming is the field of programming dealing with business programs.

This type of programming may be used in banks or any business. Scientific programming deals with scientific applications for problem solving (54). Byers 3 Along with these fields there are many advantages. The salary is one advantage.

Beginning programmers start out between twenty to thirty-five thousand dollars per year (14). This isnt a large amount but there is a chance for advancement. If a programmer is experienced he or she can make forty to eighty thousand per year (14). This field is expanding very rapidly. Because of this there is also a good chance for advancement. Opportunities are open for individuals to become project leaders, supervisors, and systems analysts.

Each of these holding higher salaries respectively (56-57). With each of the careers, programmers have more responsibility. Systems analysts have to actually find the problem and find a remedy for it. One responsibility is knowing fourth and fifth generation languages. Fourth generation languages are languages similar to English. Fifth generation languages are very detailed and are for use on expert systems (Stair 21).

As the programmer advances they find themselves working in a team. Programmers are frequently in teams made up of sales and marketing associates, people who do documenting, and training and quality control people to create a product (Eberts 30). If a prospective programmer wants to get experience programming they can program at home to get started. Taking courses at a technical school is a good chance to learn programming. If advanced programming is what a person desires it is possible to take courses at Byers 4 a college. For more experience talk to your boss into letting you do some programming for the company (Southworth 52-53).

Online getting help is easy. In any chat room or any other place it is possible to get help. To make it easier to get help it is recommended to use a popular model computer (53). Different programming languages are used to perform certain tasks.

When a programmer writes a program, which is a detailed set of instruction, the computer interprets them as ones and zeros. An example would be 1011 (Litterick 16). Even though instructions are interpreted this way this isnt how you program the languages. Some of the languages used are similar to English (Stair 21). Some languages, such as Visual Basic are simple and easy to learn. Languages such as C are more detailed and harder to learn.

All of these are fourth generation languages (21). One of these languages is FORTRAN (Radlauer 27). This language is used for scientific and engineering programming. Common Business Oriented Language or COBOL is used for business applications (Radlauer 14). Not only do computers have roles in the adult world, they are also at work in the juvenile world. Computers are used at a growing rate in schools.

Classes such a Industrial Technology offer hands on experience with computers (Wagner 83). Computers can also help disabled children (88). Children with special need can be reached through interactive software. This software is programmed to help Byers 5 these children develop motor skills. High tech businesses will bring in four billion dollars per year from schools (83). Computers are beginning to be programmed to teach people.

If you are educated that reduces the risk of unemployment, so computers help create jobs (Litterick 28). Now computers are excellent at teaching facts and techniques. In the future we will be able to react more with software to learn social skills (29). The high demand for application programmers is remarkable. With the chance for excellent salary and freedom to work at home it is clearly a great career choice. Even though the hours are odd and long this career proves very rewarding.

Computers are advancing so much, so rapidly the need for application programmers will only rise. Eberts, Marjorie. Careers for Computer Buffs. Lincolnwood: VGM Career Horizons, 1994. Evans, Christopher. The Micro Millennium.

New York: Viking, 1980. Litterick, Ian. Computers and You. New York: Brightwood, 1984. Litterick, Ian.

Programming Computers. Litterick, Ian. The Story of Computers. Radlauer, Ed, and Bob Mather. Computer Tech Talk. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1984.

Southworth, Scott. Exploring High Tech Careers. New York: Rosen, 1993. Stair, Lila B. Careers in Computers. Chicago: VGM Career Horizons, 1996. Wagner, Betsy.

Where Computers Do Work. U.S. News: December 1996, 80-88. Williams, Linda. Computers: Careers Without College. Princeton: Peterson's, 1992.334.