List and explain its major subdivisions How does Anthropology differ from other disciplines that study humans? Anthropology is the study of mankind across time in all places of the world. The word derives from the Greeks. The study of mankind everywhere, throughout time. It seeks to produce reliable knowledge about people and their behavior, both about the things they all share in common. There are major subdivisions.
First is physical anthropology, which is the study of evolution of our species and biological aspects of our species. It's the study of primates and fossils. Also there is applied anthropology which falls under physical. This specializes in the forensic field and the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes.
Next there is cultural anthropology that deals with humans as a culture-making species. There are several different types of cultural anthropology. One is Linguistics. Linguistics is the study of language. True languages only existed with humans but animals communicated directly whereas humans communicated indirectly. The next is Archaeology.
This branch is the study of the material remains in order to describe and explain human behavior in the past. This is known as extinct culture. For example, Americans study and are interested in pre-history and Europe is studying the Romans and Greeks. Lastly is enthology. Enthology is the study of existing present day of societies. Same issues as sociology's issues, which would be interested in families, values and relationships among its various aspects.
In Anthropology, cultural comparisons need not be restricted to ethnographic data. They can turn to archaeological or historical data to test hypotheses about culture change. Other studies include analyzing human behavior or records of deaths, births, etc... Anthropology has essential skills to offer the modern world, where understanding the other people with whom we share the globe has become a matter of survival. Discuss the 6 major paradigms in anthropology The six major models of anthropology is first, survival of the fitness. Darwin meant that a creature that will survive best in their ecological natural niche.
Not the strongest but whoever adapts to their ecological niche the best will soon be applied to humans. Mutation is the first process of evolution. Second is the cultural model. Society goes through developmental stages like humans. The model goes from lower civilization to higher civilization starting with in animals, animals, humans, spiritual then God being the highest. Third is Neo-evolution.
People went back and gathered the information that was put together through an evolution model. We have found evidence that is different developmental stages in society from what the cultural model was trying to explain to us. The progress of the model is all different in each society. Next is the diffusion model, which deals with the human consciousness. Where did it begin. We know that we are humans but how?
We try to search for the crater of civilization. Next is the structural / functional model. It's the business of sociology's and archaelogies that will make up these models. Questions that would derive from this model would be is what would families do for our culture, what would our religion do for this culture and where do our values fit in this culture? What is the structure and function of these beliefs? Lastly, the model is cognitive anthropology.
This is the study of the relationship of language, thought and reality, what's out there in the world? Define ethnocentrism and cultural relativism, and compare their positions on how customs of other people may be evaluated. Ethnocentrism is the belief that the ways of one's own culture are the only proper ones. That it is superior to all other cultures that people involve themselves in. Cultural Relativism is the thesis that one must suspend judgment on other peoples' practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms. To avoid making ethnocentric judgments, anthropologists adopt the approach cultural relativism, which requires that each culture be examined in its own terms, according to its own standards.
The least biased measure of a cultures success, however the term employs information indicative of its effectiveness at securing the survival of a society in a way that its members see as being reasonably fulfilling.