Short notes: 1.) Cystic Fibrosis: Abbreviated as CF and also called mucoviscidosis. It is a common hereditary disease in which cells of certain glands in the body secrete large amounts of abnormally thick mucus. Accumulation of thick mucus can block products of these glands and eventually block passage of seaways of organs into which the ducts empty. Symptoms are constant cough, which expels thick mucus, etc. Lung problems are most common cause of death for cystic fibrosis patients.

CF can be diagnosed by testing the patient's respiration. People with this disease have large amount of salt in their respiration. The gene that causes Cystic Fibrosis is located in chromosome 7. Cystic Fibrosis cannot be cured yet. Doctors use antibiotics to fight lung infections.

Physical therapy, exercise and special aerosol mists help the people to loose mucus. 2.) Muscular Dystrophy: It is the name for certain type of serious muscle diseases... The disorder that weakens skeletal muscles - that is the muscles that hold the bones of the skeleton together. They affect our body's movement and posture.

They are inherited; caused by a defect in one or more of the genes of the muscle. Some types are inherited as a dominant gene abnormality, while others are inherited as a recessive gene abnormality. No cure. 4 most common muscular dystrophy's are Duchenne (walking becomes difficult in the first 2 to 6 years of birth), facioscapulophermeral (slowly progressive muscular dystrophy and become evident in adults), limb-girdle (affects the muscles of the arms, shoulders, legs and hips), and myotonia (causes weakness of the fingers, forearms, hands arms and lower legs). There are other types of muscular dys trophies as well.

Sickle Cell anemia: A hereditary Blood disease that occurs chiefly among the blacks. It causes periodic attacks that include severe pain and fever and in many cases damage blood organs. It can lead to strokes, kidney failures, serious infections and sudden death. It occurs when a person's red blood cells lack normal hemoglobin (a substance that carries oxygen from lungs to the body tissues). Sickle hemoglobin causes to form a type of crystal in the red blood cell, when the cell looses oxygen as it goes through tiny blood vessels, called capillaries into veins, into the veins. The crystal causes the round blood cells to change into slender, twisted sickle forms.

Sickle cells get trapped into capillaries and block normal flow of blood through them. Medial research has not find out a way to prevent red blood cells in sickle cell anemia from suckling. Patients are given medicine to relieve pain and to treat any infections. Questions & Answers: Q. 1) What are genes? A. 1) A segment of chromosome made up of particular combination of nucleotides, which codes up for specific enzymes. Each chromosome contains different genes. Q. 2) What are the functions of genes? A. 2) Genes are responsible for giving us characteristics / traits that we inherit from our parents. They include our eye color, finger hair, skin color and many more. Q. 3) Where are genes located? A. 3) Genes are located on / inside the chromosomes. Q. 4) How many chromosomes are found in each of your body cells? A. 4) 46 chromosomes are found in each of our body cells. Q. 5) What is the difference between a dominant and a recessive gene? A. 5) The difference is that in a dominant gene, there are more of that kind and also it is a visible trait.

A recessive gene is hidden and we can't see it. 'OR' Dominant gene expresses its characteristics over the characteristics of the gene it is paired with. A recessive gene is a gene that is masked by another gene that is dominant. Q. 6) What 2 gene combinations will produce a recessive gene A. 6) Two recessive gene combinations will produce a recessive gene (dd+dd = dd) Q. 7) What 2 gene combinations will result in the appearance of a dominant gene? A. 7) One dominant gene and one recessive gene in both persons will result in the appearance of a dominant gene Dd+Dd = DD.