1. Wartime Black Migration During WWI, southern Blacks began to move north, where there were more jobs and less racism. The increased number of Blacks led to a White backlash and conditions like Southern racism. During the war, blacks left their traditional homes in the South and migrated North for job opportunities in the war industries. About 500,000 blacks migrated North during the war. This led to racial tension and violence in the North.
This growing concentration of blacks led to the Harlem Renaissance. 2. Fair Employment Practices Committee Roosevelt issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work for the purpose of enforcing an Executive Order and made possible the employment of 2 million blacks. It was enacted by executive order 8802 on June 25, 1941 to prohibit discrimination in the armed forces. 3.
An America Dilemma Gunnar Myrdal wrote An American Dilemma to increase White awareness of the awful discrimination against Blacks. A Swedish economist, Gunnar wrote about anticipated changes in race relations, as well as the problems between the races in 1944. He specifically noted that Black veterans returned with very high expectations from civilian life due to war. 4. Smith vs. Allright In 1944 the NAACP won a major victory in Smith vs. All wright, which outlawed the white primary.
5. Jackie Robinson Pasadena resident and UCLA alum Robinson breaks the color barrier by being the first black to play major league baseball in modern times. He was the first African-American baseball player to play professionally in 1947. He was able to break the color barrier and seemed to successfully overcome the racism so prevalent in his sport. Robinson was also was able to contribute to the winning of the pennant and Rookie of the Year in his first year of playing. 6.
De segregations of the Armed Forces Pres. Truman issues executive order requiring integrated units in the armed forces. In July, Truman issued an executive order establishing a policy of racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into effect as rapidly as possible". He also created a committee to ensure its implementation. Truman ended segregation in the army to provide support during World War II to ensure victory. He was the first president to deal with the legislative civil rights since the implementation of Reconstruction and fought for many other civil rights acts but was denied.
7. Impact of Television The ensuing scenes of violence were shown throughout the nation and the world in newspapers, magazines, and most importantly, on television. Much of the world was shocked by the events in Birmingham, and the reaction to the violence increased support for black civil rights. 8. Sweat vs. Painter In Sweat vs. Painter (1950), the Supreme Court decided that the University of Texas had to integrate its law school. 9.
Laurin vs. Oklahoma G.W. McLaurin, an African American who was preparing to be a teacher, was admitted to the University of Oklahoma. McLaurin was assigned a separate table in the library and in the cafeteria. He wasn't allowed to sit in the same classroom as white students. Instead, he had to strain to hear his professors' lectures form an empty classroom next door. 10. American Role as Defender of Democracy in the Cold War Civil Rights movement and African Americans's trug gle for social and economic equality were contributed to defending democracy.