Training of an Athlete When training a football player, or any athlete for that matter you want to make sure that they are not smoking. Smoking is very harmful and addictive to the body and causes increased airway resistance. When smoking is done it takes 24 hours to clear the poisons from 1 cigarette. The effects of smoking can be damaging for life by causing heart disease, cilia damage, throat cancer and other many life-treating effects. If an athlete is smoking the results of smoking they will see will be decreased endurance, decreased ventilation, decreased Max VO 2, and decreased oxygen capacity. For athletes to be able to perform at their best it is important for them not to be smoking.

When training or playing games endurance athletes will sometimes experience something that is called "second wind". Second wind is the feeling of relief upon making the necessary metabolic adjustments to a heavy exercise intensity. The major change that takes place for "second wind" to happen is when there is a changeover from labored breathing which is called (dyspnea) to normal breathing which is called. This respiratory adjustment however is only a reflection of metabolic adjustment to the exercise intensity. The way that "second wind" is most likely explained is by a change in skeletal muscular efficiency as increasing muscular temperature brings it on.

When an athlete is training there is some type of pain experienced in the lower lateral aspects of the thoracic wall this pain is called "stitch in the side". This is caused by the body making a respiratory adjustment to an intense exercise such as distance running. A "stitch in the side" usually occurs when the body is adjusting to new metabolic demands, it is believed that ischemia of either the diaphragm or intercostal muscles are the cause. Scientist have not been able to find any scientific evidence to explain the cause of "stitch in the side". Innervation is the stimulation of the heart and how the heart is stimulated. The heart is stimulated by four parts starting first with the SA node- a wave of excitation begins in the sa node and travels throughout the heart.

The wave of excitation is then sent by way of conduction in the atria to the AV node, this is located at the base of the atria in the inter atrial septum. From there the impulse travels through the atrioventricular bundle and the to the network, which are fibers of the heart that conduct impulses. An athlete who is highly trained and has a higher cardiac output would have an advantage over an athlete whose cardiac output is not as great. Cardiac output is the amount of blood sent by the heart each minute.

Cardiac output is measured and determined by two factors, which are heart rate and stroke volume. Cardiac output is measured by taking HR x SV = CO, this also shows that cardiac output can be altered by changing the heart rate or stroke volume. When an athlete exercises is causes many good reactions to occur. When exercising blood redistribution also known as shunting occurs. Max VO 2 also is effected because as you condition your oxygen max consumption goes up, also causing your hemoglobin, and myoglobin to go up, Max VO 2 is effected by how much oxygen on can carry and use.

Altitude also effects how exercise is effected on the body. There are three capacities to success for exercise and they are high Max VO 2, high anaerobic thresh hold, and high efficiency. Hyperventilation is when the lung ventilation rate is greater than is needed for the existing metabolic rate. In the case of hyperventilation, carbon dioxide is blown off faster than it is produced. Then hyperventilation results in decreasing quantities of carbon dioxide in the system, but has no effect on oxygen values in the blood. Sometimes football players use oxygen when they are on the sidelines after a play or set of plays, they do this because they think that they are getting their oxygen back in there blood.

This method of oxygen is not true, the only way oxygen would benefit them is if the oxygen was strapped to their back during the play of the game. When cardio training for a football player there are types of specificity issues they are metabolic, mode, and muscle group. In the metabolic pathway we will be training in the ATP-CP with 7 seconds of work and then 25 seconds of rest. The type of mode we will be working in is intermittent work. And the muscle groups we will be working are the upper body and lower body, specific different muscles will be used depending on the position of the player. Interval training is training with hard bouts with rest periods in between.

Running is usually the best. Acceleration sprints is a type of interval training and is done with a jog then 1/2 speed, 3/4 speed, and then full speed, this is what we will be using to train football players. There is also something called fart lek training which is done with speed play and or an Indian run. Hollow sprints can also be use which is sprinting a 40 and then walking a 40. The frequency training for interval training is as follows.

For an endurance athlete distance and time is the key to glycogen storage, never use both distance and time training in the same day, 4-7 day workout plan is usual for about 12 to 16 weeks, quarter mile intervals are most widely used training method. For a speed athlete a 3 week plan should be used, must build up ATP a CP stores, for sprinters it is not uncommon to work 5-6 time a week, year round hard and easy day alternate is most widely used training method with a pulse vs. time and recovery plan. Cross training is also another form of training that can be used for either endurance or speed athletes, when cross training make sure you pick a sport similar to the sport your are training in. When taking and using pulse as an indicator it is important to remember these guidelines; never use thumb, the carotid or radial pulse is acceptable, use light pressure when taking pulse, must take pulse within 10 seconds of stopping, allow recovery no longer than a heart rate of 132, and most important never work of a heart rate of 180.