Bread is a key item in our diets and is sometimes referred to as the "staff of life". Bread has been eaten for thousands of years by people of all backgrounds and religions in countries all over the world. Many different types of bread have been originated from countries. Man first began eating a crude basic of flat bread, which is a baked combination of flour and water in about 10,000 B.C. The first record of baked, leavened bread was made by the Ancient Egyptians in 3,000 B.C. The Egyptians began to ferment a flour and water mixture by using wild yeast, which was present tin the air. Wheat soon became the favourite grain to be used over others such as oats, millets and rice, because of the amount of gluten it contained was sufficient to make raised leavened bread. The Egyptians were also responsible for crafting the first oven, which was used to bake several loaves of bread at a time.
Bread was used as a way to pay people for their input into the construction of the pyramids. During the time of the Romans (700 B.C. - 500 A... D.) they began to make improvements to the quality of bread by using a sieve, which they invented, and growing better grains. The Romans enjoyed a wide variety of bread with very alluring names. There was 'oyster bread', 'artolangus' (cake bread), and 'speusticus' (hurry bread). But of course only the wealthy had access to these exotic and delicious breads.
The first baker's guild was formed in Rome in 150 B.C. they were insisted upon by wealthy Romans to make and supply them with exclusive and expensive white bread, but in times of need they distributed bread to the poor for free. The quality of bread depended upon the consumers. Bread for the rich was made from wheat flour but those who went as wealthy were given bread made form barley and bread for the poor was made from sorghum. During the middle ages majority of the bread made was now unleavened loaves but in 1191 the Normans reintroduced leavened bread In England during 1202 A.D. the bakery business was booming enough to force England to adopt laws to limit the profit bakers received.
Like in many countries the desire for bread was increasing. Many people made leavened bread but it wasn't until the 1800's that yeast was identified as a plant like organism. By the 1850's the United States of America already had over 2,000 bakeries, which employed more than 6,000 people. 1 n 1910 Americans were eating approximately 210 pounds each of wheat flour annually, but in 1971 the intake of wheat flour dropped to a record low of 110 pounds annually but has since then increased. In contrast it was said that Egyptians each consumed about 385 pounds of wheat a year. In 1928 an automatic bread slicer was introduced and it was soon followed by the invention of the automatic toaster.
The consumption of toast began to increase because of both inventions. However to hold down prices during a time of war which meant rationing food The U.S. Secretary of Agriculture banned the sale of sliced bread. In the late 1930's bread was chosen as the foundation for a diet enrichment program in the U.S. Diseases like pellagra, beriberi and anemia had become very common. These disease were linked with lack of Vitamin B and Iron, to help eliminate these diseases precise amounts of iron, thiamin, niacin and riboflavin were added to white flour.
The variety of bread today is endless. Western countries have adopted French bread, Mexican bread and many other forms of bread made in countries around the world. Bread has over thousands of years adapted to the new ways of life and has changed dramatically since the first time it was made.