Encephalitis is a disorder associated to any disease affecting the central nervous system causing inflammation of the brain. Due to the fact that the disorder is so common in many hundreds of diseases it is hard to narrow the disorder down. Many diseases can cause this disorder such as: meningitis, epilepsy and many parasitic infections, which attack the brain tissue and meninges, causing them to swell and push against the skull. Minor and serious symptoms can occur ranging from headache, fever to comas and eventual death.

The treatment of the disease varies from vaccinations to bed rest. Encephalitis can be either serious or minor with not many options of treatment. The best treatment for the disease is prevention, which is mostly limited to vaccinations. With vaccinations there are two types of immunization, which are Active and Passive immunization. The difference between the two is that Active immunization is used to control a disease on a long term basis, where Passive immunization is used to treat a disease quickly but only lasts a few weeks. Passive immunization works immediately but does not last where Active immunization takes about two weeks to work and lasts many years.

There are many vaccines to prevent Encephalitis and some of the most common diseases in this topic are Measles, Mumps and Rubella, Meningitis, Japanese Encephalitis and Mosquito and Tic Bourne Encephalitis. Measles, Mumps and Re bella viruses are all associated with Encephalitis and all can be prevented with the same vaccine. Commonly known as the Measles vaccine it is administered by injection under the skin in the thigh or shoulder. Side effects from the measles vaccine may include a rash that rapidly fades and a high fever that occurs five to 12 days after the immunization and last one or two days.

Meningitis, another common Encephalitis causing virus also can be prevented through Active or Passive immunization. Meningitis Passive immunization vaccine will be given to patients directly in contact with disease and Active immunization is given to potential recipients of the disease. Drug treatment for the swelling of Encephalitis caused by the meningitis is used. "Intravenous antibiotics are used but depend on age of patient and type of bacteria that is causing meningitis"1.

Side effects for taking vaccines for Meningitis include high fever, headache and flu. Another form of Encephalitis that was common in Japan is Japanese Encephalitis. In treatment and prevention the JE vaccine is used and causes mild systemic side effects (fever, headache, muscle aches) but can also cause more serious reactions including "generalized urticaria (hives), anaphylaxis, and respiratory distress have occurred within minutes to as long as two weeks after immunization"2. These reactions can be effectively treated with medications. The last major virus, which induces Encephalitis, is known as Mosquito / Tic Bourne Encephalitis. This virus is contracted through mosquitoes and small parasitic bacteria and has very limited treatment.

Regular tetanus and antiviral vaccines are used in defense of new bacteria in the human body. Regular Encephalitis care, such as bed rest and antibiotics are used for treatment. Another form of prevention is when scientists do figure out where the virus is contained, they immediately start spraying down farms, where domestic animals are located because the disease is passed from the animals to the mosquito and bacteria. Above were regular procedures of prevention and treatment of the major diseases causing Encephalitis, but the normal treatment for Encephalitis are: if a patient does need specific treatment for the inflammation of the brain then only bed rest and prescription drugs can be used to temporarily to control the pain.

In controlling pain and suffering many drugs are used "Anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to reduce the swelling on the inner lining of the brain tissue and meninges". Other methods of controlling pain are used such as: sleeping pills, anticonvulsant drugs and Tylenol 3. Control of high fevers and any other medication for pain can be given. Lastly, complete hospitalization (bed-rest) and doctor surveillance is needed to monitor brain swelling. As far as further investigation on Encephalitis by scientists not much work is being done at the present time but there are many University's that are studying potential cures through genetics but that is still far from being found. If Encephalitis was a problem surrounding me and I was looking for specific treatment to assist me, it would depend on the circumstances.

First of all if I had not yet contracted a disease that induces Encephalitis then I would have a choice between Passive and Active immunization. If the disease was reported to be in a different country then that would allow me to use Active immunization. I would do this because it does not react for about two weeks, which would be in sufficient time to defend against a virus coming into my country and it would protect me for many years. If the circumstances were the other way around and the disease was close to me then I would use Passive immunization because it reacts quickly with my immune system and offers quick defense against a fast moving close virus. Shortly after I received the Passive immunization I would also receive the Active immunization so it would be ready to work as soon as the Passive immunization ran out.

Basically with Encephalitis there are many different forms of viruses that each have there own vaccines or protection. No matter what the side effect the vaccine or other protection gave me I would have to take it because there are really no other alternatives. I would rather experience nausea, headache and fever from a vaccine, then contracting a disease and getting Encephalitis and have a chance of dying, it just makes sense. If I did contract a disease, which induces Encephalitis, I would simply follow the standard methods of pain prevention. This would include hospitalization, antibiotics, anticonvulsant medication and total doctor care. There are not many options so this would have to be done.

I hope for new developments in medical science, but that is still far away. In conclusion the choices of treatment for Encephalitis are very limited leaving prevention as the best method of treatment. Once the disease is contracted and it induces Encephalitis then only medication can be taken to help with pain until the disorder eventually is gone. Thus, from my perspective makes prevention the actual treatment. 320.