BIRTH AND CREATION: One of the main issues in the novel, and also in Victor Frankenstein's mind. One of the reasons for creating his monster, Frankenstein was challenging nature's law of creation. That is, to create a being, male sperm and female egg must be united etc... He was also fraught with the mystery of death and the life cycle. He created something in defiance of our understanding of birth and creation. However the similarity of Frankenstein's creation and a baby's creation is that both need to be held responsible for, and consequences dealt with, from the moment of birth.

Frankenstein failed to do this with his creation.? Whence did the principle of life proceed? To examine the causes of life, we must first have recourse to death?? I had worked hard for nearly two years, for the sole purpose of infusing life into an inanimate body? ALIENATION: Alienation is spoken of frequently throughout the novel. Felt by both Frankenstein and his creation.

The monster is deserted by the very person who brought him into the world, thus leaving him completely and totally isolated. Frankenstein feels alienated, because he is burdened with the secret that he has let loose a monster on society and is the real reason for his loved ones deaths. He alienates himself because of his feelings of guilt, shame and hatred of himself for committing such a sin. The monster only realise's his feelings of alienation after observing the cottagers for such a long time, comparing their lives to his own, extending his knowledge and then finally setting himself up for rejection when going in to the cottage, believing that they will accept him. Both eventually deal with their alienation by blaming the other and setting out to get revenge.?

All save I, were at rest or in enjoyment? , Monster (138)? My protectors had departed, and had broken the only link that held me with the world? , Monster (140)? I, the miserable, and the abandoned, am an abortion, to be spurned at, kicked, and trampled on.? Monster (224)?

Noone can conceive the anguish I suffered? Frankenstein (78)? I shunned the face of man? , Frankenstein (93)? I feel as if I was walking on the edge of a precipice, towards which thousands are crowding, endeavouring to plunge me into the abyss? Frankenstein (96) THE MONSTROUS AND THE HUMAN: The only difference between the monster in this novel, and humans, is the appearance, although it is a great difference there are greater similarities; brain, way of thinking, emotions etc.

People often have a great fear of monsters, despite having no proof or experience to give them this fear. It is imprinted on us from a young age in stories and other such media. In the book it is mentioned how Frankenstein was taught the opposite by his father, and never carried any superstitions in his mind, or was scared by super naturalness. This contributes to his blindness to the monster's aesthetical vulgarity, when putting him together, only awakening to it when the monster breathes life. The monster in return, does not instinctively hate humans, rather learns to after being shunned so officiously.? All men hate the wretched?

Monster (102)? I do not ever remember to have trembled at a tale of superstition, or to have feared the apparition of a spirit? , Frankenstein (52)? What hope can I gather from your fellow creatures, who owe me nothing? They spurn and hate me.? Monster (103) THE CRITIQUE OF SOCIETY: Society is extremely judgemental and holds many prejudices against beings for various reasons; gender, race, aesthetics, colour, sexuality etc.

The monster in the novel felt the brunt of these views, and it was because of the critique of society that he felt so rejected and isolated. His creator, Frankenstein, represented society to a large extent when he abhorred the monster from the very moment of his awakening. Petrified and repulsed by his appearance, despite having put it together himself, Frankenstein acted as all else that his monster met, either by running away, or trying to kill it. Society has been so numbed to variety, and well acquainted with knowledge and control, that when we are presented with something different, or completely unlike ourselves, we become afraid. The monster was rejected instantly, regardless of his human-like mind and knowledge, and in turn he hates society.? I vowed eternal hatred and vengeance to all mankind.?

Monster (143)? Am I not shunned and hated by all mankind?? Monster (147)? Let him live with me in the interchange of kindness; and instead of injury I would bestow every benefit upon him with tears of gratitude at his acceptance.? Monster (148)? The human sense are insurmountable barriers to our union.?

Monster (148)? Once I falsely hoped to meet with beings who, pardoning my outward form, would love me for the excellent qualities which I was capable of unfolding.? Monster (223) CONTEXT OF MARY SHELLEY'S FRANKENSTEIN. Europe in the 1800's, early 19th century.

At the time, the romantic movement was in motion. This, in regards to the arts, played to people's emotions, passions and imaginations. It was about the human and how they were feeling. This was in stark contrast to the age of enlightenment which had just passed, which concentrated on reason, logic and science for explaining things.

Mary Shelley's father was a radical for his time, in regards to his philosophies and beliefs. He was a utilitarian, famous for his short piece of? The archbishop and the chambermaid? , where if given an ultimatum would choose the more useful person to the greater good of society, even if it meant sacrificing a member of his family.? There are those among us who know that one cannot attempt to completely re-invent society and then expect a good result - or even a passable result. They know that innovations must be made carefully and incrementally, and that the 'proprieties' are the encoding of vast experience and painfully won knowledge, and must ever be referenced. ?