The Reformation was when the Protestants broke away from the Pope. Martin Luther King, the leader, led the break with Rome. He translated the bible into German. The 95 Theses was basically a book of complaints. One of the theses was the practice of selling indulgences, which was distributed all over Europe. The practice of selling indulgences was a forgiven pass for not going to confession.

Calvinism was the theological tenets of John Calvin. One teaching of his was predestination. Another was Congregationalism where the church made the rules, and didn't have to report to the Pope. The Universal Priesthood of Believers was that all believers were priests. The Eucharist denied Christ's presence.

In the communion the priest stood over bread and wine, which symbolized the body and blood. Also, the earthly must be sanctified by the heavenly. Henry V was the king of England. He had marital problems where he beheaded most of his wives. He wanted a son to carry down the reign, but his first wife had a girl.

He went to the Pope to get his marriage annul ed, but the Pope said he could not annul it. So, he beheaded his wife. He established his own church, dismissed the Pope, and made himself the head of all churches. Basically, Henry V broke with Rome, setup as head of the church, and confiscated all the church properties. Puritanism beliefs and practices consisted of predestination, total depravity, conversion experience, work ethic, old testament covenant, and the purification of the church.

Predestination was the belief if god imposed a will, then your life is predestined. Total depravity was where man is utterly sinful and cannot be gone. The conversion experience was believed that life had to be lived for god only. The Puritans job was to purify everything.

They could enjoy anything only if it was for god. The work ethic belief was that you should use time, talents, and abilities for God. They wanted to purify the church with Catholic practices and society. John Winthrop had many jobs. First, he was the Lord of the Groton Manor.

He made money by renting land at a fixed rate. Second, he was an attorney in his majesty's court of ward's. The father of a household would give his land to his eldest son. If his son was not old enough to own the land the land would go to the king. Then, the king returns the land when the son is old enough to own the land. Charles I became the Puritans enemy.

He believed in Arminianism. Arminianism is where people do evil things by believing in Christ. In 1629 Charles I dissolved the Parliament. So, he was decapitated. The new leader killed all Catholics.

The first colony in the New World was in Roanoke. The settlers in Roanoke disappeared, and there was a carving in a tree by the Croatians. Virginia was the second colony established. The settlers went to find gold, but they didn't find any.

So, they made money over selling tobacco. Most people died in the New World because of starvation and cold. The Massachusetts Bay Company was made by Puritans. The Charter was made up of board of directors only. They didn't know when or where to meet. The movement to separate was led by John Winthrop.

Everyone followed him, so he made the decisions. He had many personal struggles. First, his son, Henry, went to Barbados in the West Indies. He thought he'd make a fortune, but he didn't so he went back home. When he went back he saw his cousin, fell in love, and married her without permission. Second, he received Groton Manor.

He gave his land to his two sons. They weren't very good salesmen, so he lost influence. John Winthrop could not spread religion, because he was semi- rich. He wanted to create a city on a hill by turning Massachusetts Bay into a colony and a godly city. Separatists wanted the separation of the church and state. The non- separatists wanted to purify the church within.

The voyage to separate left in early spring and arrived in late fall. They first settled in Salem, which was mostly wooded. About 200 to 400 people died, because they didn't pack enough food. So, many people died of the cold and starvation. Colonists tried moving to Charlestown, but more colonists died because the contamination of water. Then, they settled in Boston Peninsula.

The New England weather was very harsh and cold. The settlers didn't know how the weather was going to be. The weather also led to many deaths. They didn't have enough clothing to cover themselves to keep warm. God had a covenant with every society.

People left England, because god's wrath was going to strike England. They thought god's wrath was coming, since the church was corrupted. The list of rules stated that every sin must be punished, a person could not live alone, everyone must be educated, and everyone must attend church. Every sin was punished, because each family kept and eye on the children, if they did something bad. A person was not allowed to live alone because the person would not be punished. Some examples of the punishments were cutting of the ear, bore in the tongue, branded, and prison.

The Massachusetts Bay Charter could have meetings without being in England. The governor and leader, John Winthrop, had power to control the colony only. John Winthrop held elections once a year for leader, so people could share leadership and new ideas. John Winthrop was voted out of leader of colony, because he was too lenient. Basically because he didn't rule with an iron fist. Rodger Williams, a separatist, believed in religious toleration, where you believe what you want.

He wanted purity of the church, and congregationalist churches should be self- governing. Also, he wanted the state separate from church to protect the church. He didn't want the state controlling his church. He went to Rhode Island and started his own church for those who were banned from his / her original church. Anne Hutchinson, a follower of John Cotton, was convicted in what she believed. She believed that predestined holy spirit or god controlled life.

She was put on trial for her belief, because she spoke out about theological issues. John Winthrop accused her in front of the jury. She lost the case, and went to Rhode Island, where she crucified herself. In New England, John Winthrop was elected governor in 1637.

At annual elections only freemen could vote only. Women, slaves, non church people, and people who did not own land could not vote. The New Englanders did not want the separation of the church and state. Many people wanted "the city upon a hill". Why? They wanted other people to look up to them.

The city upon a hill was to be a religious, godly city. They didn't necessarily want it to be perfect but maybe something close to it. The English Civil War was basically where King Charles I resolved the parliament. The parliament went against him in 1649, led by Oliver Cromwell. Finally, the parliament said they'd let the people believe what they want to believe.