Peter Made Many Reforms On Russia essay example
Versailles what the palace that was ordered to be built by Louis XIV. Versailles was the most luxurious palace of its time. The palace itself stretched an astonishing 500 yards. Versailles was built on swampy land about 11 miles southwest of Paris.
Life at the palace was also handled in a royal matter, Louis spent tons of money to surround himself with luxury. Every meal was feast, he had nearly 500 cooks and waiters to satisfy his tastes. Every morning the chief valet had the job of waking Louis at 7: 30, and as soon as he woke there where one hundred of the courts finest nobles waiting and hoping to in some way help the king dress. Versailles also had problems, for example since it was huge the food was often cold by the time it got from one end of the palace to the other, there was also a water shortage. Versailles became a center of the arts during Louis reign as king, he made opera and ballet more popular. Some researchers have estimated that Louis spent up to 60% of Frances income of that year, on the building and up keeping of Versailles.
3. Louis XIV died unhappy because he had come to the realization that he had done more bad to France that good. His wars had ruined the glory of France. Although he had the great palace of Versailles built he still regretted the fact that his people had suffered more than rejoiced during his reign as king. News of his death brought joy throughout the countryside. 4.
One of th ways which Russia differed from the rest of Europe is that was still on a system of boyars and serfs. Serfdom lasted much longer in Russia that in western Europe, it continued in Russia into the mid-1800's, many years after the rest of Europe had ended it. Also Russia had been under Mongol rule and was cut off the from the ages of Renaissance and Exploration. Geographical barriers also isolated Russia.
Russia only had one seaport, Archangel, and it was stopped by ice much of the year. Religion was also another dividing factor between Russia and the rest of Europe, Russians where the Eastern Orthodox branch of Christianity, while Western Europeans were mostly Catholics or Protestants, Russians viewed them as heretics and stayed away from them. 5. Peter knew how to go about the westernization of Russia because he had visited Western Europe first hand. He worked as a shipsmen in his stay in Western Europe. He was accompanied by 200 servants and 55 boyars, making his visit no real secret.
His goal was to learn about European customs and industrial techniques which would be vital in bettering his own Russia. Although it was obvious of what Peter was doing he still insisted on keeping his identity secret he wore plain clothes and tried to act as a commoner. He worked on ships for four months. People where soon perfectly aware of his identity, yet if a worker addressed him as your majesty or sire Peter would not respond. Peter also made visits to Austria and England before returning home. 6.
Peter built St. Petersburg for many reasons. He wanted to promote growth and education, but mostly Peter wanted a easier way to travel west and vice versa. The city was built on a swamp which had to be won in war with Sweden. Building a city on a swamp was no easy task, every summer the army would force thousands of serfs to leave there families and jobs to go work at St. Petersburg. It is estimated that 25,000 to 100,000 serfs died from the terrible working conditions and diseases of St. Petersburg.
The building of St. Petersburg showed just how much power the rulers of absolute monarch had anything they said had to be done, must be done. Peter wanted a city and thousands of men died to build his city yet none of these men had a choose in the matter. This showed the absolute power of rulers of these monarchs. 7. Peter made many reforms on Russia, he brought the Russian Orthodox church under state control.
He also abolished the office of patriarch, which is the head of church, he then set up a group called the Holy Synod to run the church, which was under his direction. He also made a great effort to modernize his army, he hired European officers who drilled Peters soldiers using European tactics and weapons, being a soldier was now a lifetime job. Because of the number of the growing army Peter also had to impose heavy taxes to pay for it. Peter also reduced the power of the great landowners.
He recruited able men of low-ranking families and then promoted them to positions of authority and rewarded them with grants of land. 8. In the English monarchy the king is not in absolute power, his decisions are still limited because of the English parliament. In France the king has absolute power he can make all he decisions and call with out anyone to question him or tell him he cant do it. Parliament is like the congress we use in America the king made the calls but the parliament ha to approve of them first. The system which the English use is the basis of our system we use in America today, which consists of a president and congress much like the king and parliament that they use.
9. The English Civil War was between those loyal to King Charles, known as Royalists or Cavaliers, and those who where Puritan supporters of Parliament, who where mockingly called Roundheads due to there short hair cut which went over there ears. The Royalist were led by King Charles himself, while the Roundheads were led by Oliver Cromwell, who founded the New Model Army which proved to be too much for the Royalists. The war lasted from 1642 to 1649, and was started all because Parliament passed laws to limit royal power. Charles who was furious about the new laws attempted to arrest Parliaments leaders in January of 1642, but the escaped.
Very furious as well a mob of Londoners raged outside the palace, Charles then fled London to the north of England and started up a army where people were loyal to him. 10. Louis XIV ran his nation the way he wanted to see himself. He tried to bring glory to his country, when in fact he hurt his country more than he helped it. He took his country into many wars which many of them he lost. He also built the palace at Versailles which showed his need to be surrounded with luxury, this alone nearly drained Frances economy, just so he could look good as king.
Peter I of Russia was a totally different man than Henry, he wanted to help his country to modernize and grow, and he went about doing this the right way. He made personal sacrifices to assure the growth of his country. He went and worked as a shipsmen just to learn how to make his country better, and when it came down to the end he died trying to save another mans life. I cant imagine Henry who did nothing but drain his countrys economy to pleasure himself, jumping in freezing cold water to save another persons life. I definitely believe Peter deserves to be give the title great much more than Henry. They were called divine right because of there mentality that they were Gods servants on earth and could answer only to God.
I dont believe that a monarchy could work at all in todays world. In our society and world today we have to many cultures and needs which cant be revolved around just what a king wants. With our rebellious nature of these days a monarchy would not only never work it would never last it would be overran in a matter of no time at all. It just would be unthinkable to have ruler who made every call with no say from the people, there is no way it could work in our world today.