Physical Chemistry At University Level essay example

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Introduction On the surface, daily routines of Pharmacists may appear to be rather simplified and involves little work hazard and responsibilities. As pharmacists dispense prescribed drug and medicine by doctors or dentists, they may provide assistance to those who seeks help with non-prescribed products. This is a correct yet very generalized view of pharmacist, this career interacts with many different industries. As an example, technology plays key role for pharmacist. Computer skill enables individual to make use of computer database constructed for patients prescriptions, thus ensuring efficient service and preventing potential risks such as harmful drug interaction. Pharmacist has many affiliations other then just Doctors and its medical organizations; pharmacists are required in numerous fields for selection and use of drugs.

This career branch itself out to many different opportunities such as research, education and training. Not just your neighbourhood pharmacist. This essay will explore many aspects of this profession, starting with job description. Job Description The typical tasks for the occupation of pharmacist and the relationship to required aptitudes are as follows.

Their training and credentials allows them to handle general task like compounding and dispense of prescribed pharmaceutical products. Customer interaction on the selection and use of non-prescription medications often requires verbal and communication skills. Needless to say, they face many numerical challenges, thus mathematical prowess is more of necessity then asset. Visual perception receives extra attention as comparison and screening is exercised when preparing pharmaceutical compounds. Clerical organizational skill is demonstrated as they maintain medical profiles of customers, and to keep up with many different aspects such as registry of poisons, narcotics, and other controlled drugs. This occupation requires methodical, innovative, and directive interest because it involves working with precision.

Ensuring proper storage of vaccines, serums, biological and other pharmaceutical products for the purpose of preventing damage and deterioration. They also gather and examine pharmaceutical products, advises customers and health care professionals on the administration, uses, and effects of medications, drugs and contra-indications. The directive interest is used for instructing pharmacy staff, supervising and co-coordinating the activities of other pharmacists, pharmacy assistants, and pharmacy technicians. Various Job Allocations The majority of licensed pharmacists work in community pharmacy, where they are respected member of society whom community rely on for health and well-being. However, pharmacists work environment can be very different as there are many classifications. From an independently owned pharmacy, franchise drug store, unit within a department store, division of supermarket, and inside a clinic or hospital.

While job descriptions may vary to certain degree depending on the job title or environment, many of routines are followed in same fashion. Licensed pharmacists working in a hospital are generally involved in the development of new medicines and dosage controls and forms. Their main emphasis is research based, as they study how medicines combat disease and analyze its side effects, and evaluating the social and economic factors as well. However, the general duties are very similar to a community pharmacist working in a supermarket.

Biggest difference would be that not every division or department is dedicated to direct interaction with customers or patients. Hospital pharmacists help patients with drug information, and help organization to select and purchase necessary equipments. Also the pharmacist in charge often decides drug distribution method. Brief listing of other activities are patient seminars, co-operation with physicians and nurses to provide patient care, counselling patients before the discharge, and monitoring drug therapy while in and after leaving the hospital. Internal and External Opportunities Government sector involving public health concerns often hire pharmacists in field of investigative, toxicology laboratories, inspection, and health supplies officer or in the armed forces. These careers are involved with all municipal, provincial and federal levels.

The army services provide positions for pharmacists in military hospitals both in Canada and overseas. Pharmacists are commissioned as officers and able to hold a rank from second lieutenant to lieutenant colonel. The provincial and federal governments require pharmacists to supervise the schedule and distribution of poisons and narcotics, and manage various drug plans and health care programs in nation-wide level. Pharmacists can be employed at public organizations such as Health Canada, the Provincial Ministries of Drug Program Branches, and Forensic laboratories. Salary Figure Many factors come into play when it comes to differentiating the salary level among Pharmacists. Location, size of the organization, type of employer, education level and experience of the pharmacist, and the duties and responsibilities of the position are variables that influence the salary.

Latest figure released is the net self employment income in 1997, which shows that full-time and full year workers in the age group of twenty to twenty nine earns $57,693 for pharmacist group who earn the highest; $47,303 for the average earning pharmacist group; and $39,003 for pharmacist group who earn the lowest. In the age group of thirty to thirty- nine, the salaries are $65,991 for the highest earning group, $53,922 for the average earning group, and $41,129 for the lowest earning group. In the age group of forty to forty- nine, the salaries are $67,151 for the highest earning group, $55,972 for average earning group, and $40,026 for the lowest earning group, according to Job Futures from Human Resources development Canada. College / University offering this program The only school offering pharmaceutical studies in Ontario is The University of Toronto. This program requires some university studies. Biochemistry is considered to be an appropriate basic background program, which will allow all the requirement courses to be completed.

Biochemistry is offered at number of Universities in Ontario: Brock University, Carleton University, University of Guelph, Laurentian University, McMaster University, University of Ottawa, Queens University, University of Toronto, (also at Mississauga and Scarborough Campus), Western University, University of Windsor, York University, and University of Waterloo. Admission requirements According to the University of Waterloo calendar, to be accepted to Biochemistry which offers both regular and co-op program, require an Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSS D) with at least six OACs (Ontario Academic Courses) including Calculus, Chemistry OAC, Physics OAC, one of Algebra and Geometry, or Finite Mathematics. At least one high school computer science course is recommended as well as an Admission Information Form. For a regular program, an average of mid-70's in six OACs is required, and an average of high-70's for co-op program. For the admission for the Faculty of Pharmacy at University of Toronto, at least one full year of study at the university level must be successfully completed, with seven specified required subjects at the OAC or university level. The required subjects are English OAC 1, Biology OAC, or university level, Physics OAC or university level, Chemistry at university level, some Physical Chemistry at university level, a semester of Organic Chemistry with at least forty two hours of laboratory experience, Calculus at university level, plus two full course in areas in Humanities, or Social Science, which one of two must be taken at the university level.

An increasing university average of at least sixty five percent is required for the admission of the applicants. However, the minimum acceptable average in the final selections will be at least seventy percent. Also, Faculty of Pharmacy Admission Profile Form is required, which consists of two parts, part one of the Profile Form - the Test of Critical Skills, in an essay format, and part two of the Profile Form, which includes the investigation of the profession. Required Program Courses: The length of the program of Biochemistry is four year for regular program and approximately four and half years for co-op program. In order to complete the entire program for Co-op Biochemistry program, 22.75 credits including all required labs in Chemistry and Physics should be successfully completed, enrolled full-time in two out of three years, one being either year two or three, and the other being the year four.

The mandatory courses for completion of this program are: (First year) Introductory Cell Biology (BIOL 230), Fundamentals of Microbiology (BIOL 240), Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter / Laboratory (CHEM 121/121 L), Mechanics, Wave Motion and Heat 1/Laboratory (PHYS 121/121 L), Or Physics 1/Laboratory (PHYS 111/111 L), Calculus 1 (Math 127), Genetics (BIOL 239), Chemical Reactions, Equilibria and Kinetics / Chemical Reaction Laboratory 2 (CHEM 125/125 L), Introductory Spectroscopy (CHEM 129), Calculus 2 (MATH 128), (Second year) Two biology course, both 0.5 200-level credits, Inorganic Structure and Bonding 1 (CHEM 212), Analytical Chemistry / Laboratory (CHEM 223/223 L), Organic Chemistry 1 (CHEM 264), Analytical Chemistry Laboratory 2 (CHEM 224 L), Fundamentals of Biochemistry (CHEM 233), Chemical Thermodynamics 1 (CHEM 254), Organic Chemistry 2/Laboratory (CHEM 265/265 L), Physics 2/Laboratory (PHYS 112/112 L), (Third year) Advanced Cell Biology (BIOL 331), Physical Biochemistry (CHEM 357), Synthetic Organic Chemistry / Laboratory (CHEM 360/360 L), Molecular Biology (BIOL 330), Metabolism 1 (CHEM 333), Advanced Biochemistry Laboratory (CHEM 334 L), Elementary Statistics for biology (STAT 202), And four elective courses, (Fourth year) Elective courses chosen from Group A, B, and C (Seven credits from Group A, B, and C, with at least 5.5 credits from Group A and B, of which are not less than 4.0 credits are from Group A). Group A: (BIOL 342) Molecular Biotechnology 1, (BIOL 428) The Molecular Genetics of Plant Development, (BIOL 432) Molecular Biotechnology 2, (BIOL 433) Animal and Plant Cell Biotechnology, (BIOL 434) Human Molecular Genetics, (BIOL 435) Molecular Biology Techniques, (BIOL 438) Molecular Biology of Animal Development, (BIOL 439) Environmental and Natural Products Biochemistry, (BIOL 442) Virology, (BIOL 499 A / B) Senior Honours Project. Group B: (BIOL 302) Functional Histology, (BIOL) Embryology, (BIOL 323) Plant Physiology, (BIOL 354) Environmental Toxicology 1, (BIOL 370) Comparative Animal Physiology 1, (BIOL 371) Comparative Animal Physiology 2, (BIOL 373) Principles of Human Physiology 2, (BIOL 403) Developmental Biology, (BIOL 427) Environmental Physiology, (BIOL 443) Fermentation Biotechnology, (BIOL 444) Microorganisms and Disease, (BIOL 445) Microorganisms in Foods, (BIOL 448) Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry, (BIOL 455) Environmental Toxicology 2, (BIOL 473) Vertebrate Reproductive Physiology, (CHEM 213) Inorganic Structure and Bonding 2, (CHEM 310) Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, (CHEM 310) Transition Element Compounds and Inorganic Materials, (CHEM 323) Analytical Instrumentation, (CHEM 411) Organometallic Chemistry, (CHEM 413) Special Topics in Inorganic Chemistry, (CHEM 425) Special Topics in Analytical Chemistry, (CHEM 464) Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry, (CHEM 465) Special Topics in Organic Chemistry, (PHYS 480) Radiation Biophysics. Group C: Free electives, but not more than 1.5 credits. First year Semester One: Introductory Cell Biology (BIOL 230): An introductory course of cell biology with focussing in the structural organization of the cell and organelles that are involved, and the features of living organisms which involve the function of essential molecular processes.

Fundamentals of Microbiology (BIOL 240): Introductory course studying the structure, the outcome of physical factors, growth and development, reducing and destroying of microorganism (any microscopic organism, including algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses), including fundamental theories, principles and methods of microbiology (the study of organisms too small to be seen by the naked eye. Some of the examples are protozoan, algae, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter / Laboratory (CHEM 121/121 L): The study of stoichiometry (two Greek words: stoicheion meaning "element" and metro meaning "measure"; involve with calculations about the masses (sometimes volumes) of reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction) of compounds and chemical reactions, and the properties of gases, including change in energy in chemical systems. The shape of atoms and molecules, and an association with the reactivity of common elements, inorganic and organic compounds chemically. Mechanics, Wave Motion and Heat 1/Laboratory (PHYS 121/121 L): An introductory course in physics for students planning to further study physical sciences, optometry or mathematics.

Includes study of dynamics and kinematics of particles, forces in nature, work and energy, and rotational kinematics and dynamics. Or Physics 1/Laboratory (PHYS 111/111 L): An introduction to physics for students planning to further study biology, dentistry, medicine and Para medicine, involving studying of kinematics and dynamics of particles, analyzing energy and momentum, rotational mechanics and properties of liquids, temperature and heat. Calculus 1 (Math 127): Components of OAC Calculus are reviewed with applications of the derivative, and the use of Riemann sums and the integral. Different interpretations of integrals are studied.

Semester Two: Genetics (BIOL 239): Analysis of the genetic by use of Mendelian basis. A study of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis, the origin, and inheritance of the chromosomal changes are studied. Nucleic acids and Natural selection of genetic system is studied. Chemical Reactions, Equilibria and Kinetics / Chemical Reaction Laboratory 2 (CHEM 125/125 L): The enriched version of study of properties of liquids and solutions, chemical and acid-base equilibria, for students planning to enter Chemistry of Biochemistry Program. Introductory Spectroscopy (CHEM 129): The study of light (electromagnetic spectrum, detection of photon, which is the quantum of electromagnetic energy, generally considered as a distinct particle having zero mass, no electric charge, and an indefinitely long lifetime) and wavelengths of light (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, etc. ).

Calculus 2 (MATH 128): The study and the application motion, polar coordinates, partial derivatives, linear approximation, the chain rule, and directional derivatives with maxima and minima and optimization problems. (Elective) Lifespan Processes: The Normal Events (ISS 150 R): A study of events occurring throughout the lifespan, such as relationship, death / loss, role change, and mid-life transition. Estimation of Program Cost University of Waterloo Biochemistry Co-op program Year One (Residence) Year two to Four (At home) Tuition fee (co-op) $3,980.00 $3,980.00 Incidental fees $611.16 $611.16 Co-op fee $800.00 $800.00 Transportation (Bus, Bike, Roller blades) $700.00 $650.00 Books and Supplies $537.00 $537.00 Residence, including meal plan $5,447.00 - Rent, including heat, hydro, and telephone - - Groceries - - Entertainment, and Personal expenses $1,000.00 $1,000.00 Total (Co-op) $13,075.16 $7,578.16 x 3 years = $22,734.54 Total of Four Years $35, 8097 Career Opportunities: Employment of pharmacists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000, mainly due to the increase pharmaceutical needs of a larger and older population. The increased number of middle-aged and older people will increase the demand in pharmacy settings. The fast growing number of elderly population is especially important since the prescription drugs are used twice as much by people over the age of sixty five, on the average, as younger people. The likelihood of the scientific improvement will make more drug products available for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases will also increase demand for more pharmacists.

The demand for pharmacists will be especially strong in community pharmacies because pharmacist employment will increase with the growth of pharmacy services into unusual settings such as grocery stores and department. The number of pharmacists in hospitals is also expected to grow because of the increased seriousness of the typical hospital patient's illness, with rapid development in drug therapy, is likely to increase demand for clinical pharmacists in hospitals. Also, like in other occupations, most job openings will result trying to replace pharmacists who leave the profession for retirement. The job outlook for pharmacists is expected to be excellent. According to Job Futures, the chances of finding a work in this field is relatively strong, with chance of employment loss being relatively weak, for both current and in approximately five years (2004). Job Futures also shows that most of the pharmacists, 78.8%, work in retail trade, 15.1%in hospitals, 2.7% in whole sale trade, 0.8% in chemicals manufacturing, 0.7%other health and social services, 0.3% physicians and health practitioners and medical labs, and 0.2% working in the educational field.

The statistics from Choices 2000 shows that 22,000 people were employed in 1998, an increase of 43.0% from 1988. After employment gain of 16.8% from 1988 to 1993, the employment grew 22.5% from 1993 to 1998. As well; employment in all occupations grew 12.3% over the same ten years, and 8.2% over the last five. It also shows that 19% of all pharmacists work part-time, 13% are self-employed, compared to an average of 17% for all occupations.

An interesting factor about pharmacists is that 56% are women, well above the average of 45% for all occupations. The unemployment rate averaged 1.3% from 1996 to 1998, compared to the national average of 6.0%, which is a fairly low rate. Therefore, after completing the required education it is likely that high job prospect can favour those who are interested in this career. Conclusion: Why Pharmacist Would Be a Fulfilling and Interesting Career Pharmacist is an attractive career that satisfies both financial wise and interesting wise, especially for women. In comparison to other jobs, pharmacists earn much more money, and good income that can support own family.

Also, for someone who is willing to be devoted to field of science, this is a very good job, because pharmacist continues to research and experiment to better serve the patients and the public. While other jobs do not have the right settings for women in the job field, pharmacist provides safe and relaxing atmosphere. Also, the hours are not too long. Pharmacies usually open from nine in the morning to seven or eight at night. Therefore, this job field will not affect the social life too much.