What is job analysis and why is it done? Organizations are growing in size each and every day, which in turn creates a high demand for employees. This outcome, however, needs a systematic approach to determine the right employee for the right position. The process has become so large that organizations need specialized help from Human Resource Management (HRM) departments to ensure that the requirements of the position are met.
Therefore, the HRM department provides the function of job analysis in order to select the right individual for the position. "Job analysis is a complex and vital part of every HRM program, as well as an important systematic process used within an organization to determine future members of the workforce". Job analysis contributes to many important Human Resource Management functions as it identifies and analyzes the relation between the job and what is required. According to the "Job Analysis: Overview", Job analysis is a process used to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties, requirements, and the relative importance of these duties for a given position or a particular job.
A job analysis defines the work, activities, tasks, objectives, products, services, or processes required to perform a particular job. It collects details about work activities, human behaviors, machine, tools, equipment and work aids, performance standards, job context, and human requirements. These in turn help to identify the knowledges, skills and abilities required to perform a job. An important factor to note is that in this process, analysis is conducted on the job, not the person, which also results in a description of the job and not the person (Job Analysis: Overview).
Information for a job analysis can be collected in various ways. Some of these ways include observation, an interview, questionnaire, diary or log kept by the job holder, multiple sources of information or other quantitative techniques (Dressler, Gary). According to the website "Human Resource Management", Job analysis data contributes to many Human Resource Management functions, such as recruitment and selection, performance evaluation, training and development, compensation management, job design, work force projections, and work force reduction or expansion decisions. This information that is collected can be used as the basis for job description and job specifications. Then the HR management uses the job analysis to determine pay levels and look at performance standards for performance appraisal. Based on the activities and skills listed in the job analysis, training needs analysis can be done.
The information can also be used to check that all duties carried out in a department appear on a job analysis and to ensure that selection criteria and job performance are related (Dressler, Gary). Other reasons, as described in the website "Human Resource Management", for why job analysis is used include legal reasons, improving human resource management, and enhancing organizational communication. Legal reasons for job analysis can include complying with state or federal laws to ensure that an organization's selection process is valid and that no discriminatory factors are present. Human Resource management reasons can be to obtain an improved process for obtaining, retaining, and managing an organization's work and human resources. Also, job analysis can be used to enhance communication within the organization by communicating the organizations expectations to its employees. "The purpose of Job Analysis is to show the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal" (Job Analysis: Overview).
Job analysis can be used in determining training needs by identifying training content, the assessment tests which need to be used to measure the effectiveness of training, the equipment to be used in the training process, and the methods of training. Job Analysis can also be used in compensation to identify the skill levels, the compensable job factors, the work environment, the responsibilities, and the required level of education and salary level. In selection procedures, job analysis can be used to identify job duties that need to be included in ads of vacant position, the appropriate salary levels for a position, the minimum requirements, the interview questions, the selection tests, the evaluation forms, etc. For performance reviews, job analysis can be used to figure out goals and objectives, performance standards, the evaluation criteria, the length probationary periods, and the duties that are going to be evaluated. Job analysis is where judgments are made on data collected on a job. It is one the most important processes carried out by the Human Resource Management departments in many organizations.
It contributes to many Human Resource Management functions and helps to identify and develop the relations between jobs and requirements. It is one the most critical steps in a job selection process as well as in writing the job description and job specifications. Basically, Job Analysis forms the core of the Human Resources Management functions.
Dressler, Gary. Human Resource Management. 10th ed. Prentice Hall. 2005. "Human Resource Man anagement". ". Job Analysis Informaion". ". Job Analysis: Overview". .