World War I (September 1939 - May 1945) o France declared war on Germany along with Canada one week later. o The United States stayed out of the war until 1941 (Japanese force made a surprise attack on US naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii). o The United States retaliated with nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (Hostilities against Japan ended in August 1945) Participation of Canada during World War I o Canada far from fighting zones. o Provided food, clothing, and arrangements to support the cause of the Allies causing rapid expansion in most industries. o New factories were constructed building supplies needed for the war. o Almost full employment and workers had better wages. o Farmers produced a greater quantity of food for export to Britain and to feed allied armies. o Canadian federal government centralized control over production. o Trade unions were allowed to grow in size and power. o Money was needed to pay for the big war effort - collected income taxes, raised rates by 20%, luxury good were highly taxed, and people were urged to buy Victory Bonds. o National debt rose - 10 billion dollars. o Government controlled prices to prevent inflation. o Food was rationed to allow more to be exported. o Canada suffered during the war. o Recruiting campaigns and training programs were organized. o Allied pilots were trained to fly planes. o Royal Canadian Air Force / Navy played an important during the war o Canadian Army fought mainly in Europe. Participation of Canadian Women during World War I o Women served as cooks, clerks, nurses, signalers, and drivers (not accepted for combat roles o Replaced men on farms and in factories (producing war materials) o Received better wages (wage gap between men and women narrowed) o Attracted women for domestic service and hotel work. o Gained the right to vote in Quebec's elections in 1940 o Federal government sent Family Allowance to women with dependant children. o Married women gained the right to work outside the home. Conscription Crisis o English Canada supported sending troops to help Britain and France.
French Canadians supported the war effort but not the idea of fighting a European War. o Mackenzie King (1939 Prime Minister of Canada) said ONLY volunteers would be sent overseas. o Maurice Duplessis (Union nationale premier of Quebec) was against conscription. Called a provincial election in 1939 on the issue. The Liberal Party persuaded people to vote for them saying they would resign before they would accept conscription. Liberals won and Ad " e lard Godbout became premier of Quebec. o Beginning of the war ONLY volunteers were sent overseas (mainly from English- speaking provinces) o In 1942, federal Mackenzie held a plebiscite and Mackenzie King and the Liberals wanted to break their promise and enforce conscription only if necessary. o French Canadians and the Roman Catholic Church opposed, the English were for. o In 1944, conscription was applied.
Quebec's Politics during the War o Godbout resisted all of these measures and the Union nationale won the provincial election in 1944 (supported by rural areas) Post war economic prosperity o 1945-1960 post war period economy was prosperous. Time of economic boom. o Demand for consumer goods and new products were coming on the market (TV) o People had more money to spend (inflation had doubled, wages had tripled) o Europe had to rebuild and were in demand of materials for the export market. o Much home construction o More factories needed (American companies made investments in Canada) o 1950-53 military supplies were required for the Korean War. o Little unemployment, many jobs were created. o Montreal (over half of the province's population) enjoyed the economic growth. (Construction of new factories and St. Lawrence Seaway, suburbs spreading out) o North of the St. Lawrence Valley: construction of dams, power stations, transmission lines to supply hydroelectricity to the cities and industries. New mining centers, aluminum smelters, pulp and paper mills, roads, harbors, and airports were constructed. o Gasp " e sie experienced little growth, many people left for Montreal. The "Baby Boom" and Immigration 1945-1960 o Population growth: natural increase and immigration o Many couples married and had children after the war. o Birth rate increased and while infant mortalities decreased. o Many immigrants came to North America where economic prospects appeared much better (Europe underwent much construction and was not so promising, possibility of another war breaking out) o Montreal's population became more cosmopolitan. o New immigrants became part of the Anglophone community.
This distressed French-Canadian nationalists. Labor Unions and Strikes in Quebec o Less than half of workers belonged to a trade union. Laws allowed the formation of trade unions but governments and companies were not in favor for them. o Labor conflicts resulting in strikes: Valley field, Asbestos, and Murdoch ville. All demanded higher wages or a recognition of a union and resulted in violence. Changes in Agriculture and Way of Living o Farms near cities grew larger in size. o Farms in remote areas were abandoned or operated on a part-time basis. o Farming was being modernized: more tractors and machinery were used, better roads were built, rural electrification was pushed ahead, farmers could get loans to buy new equipment and install drains, more fertilizer was being used, many farmers made a switch from growing wheat to cultivating corn. o Cooperatives became important. Could market better products and obtain better prices.
Could provide its members for its members for lower prices. o Post-war years most people had electricity. Television broadcasts began in black and white in 1952. o Quebec's way of life was Americanized o Qu " ebecois had become members of the consumer society. The Influence of the Roman Catholic Church o Tried to cling to its privileged position. o Ran education, operated hospitals and mental asylums, ran orphanages, provided charity, organized trade unions, cooperatives, caisse's populaire, and youth groups. o Glorified rural life encouraged large families, opposed communism, labor unions, and the temptations of city life. Traditional politics and the Role of the Duplessis Government o Maurice Duplessis and the Union nationale party first elected in 1936. o Duplessis exercised enormous power and did not use it for his personal gain in terms of wealth. o Believed the government should intervene as little as possible in the economy. o Believed the state should have a balanced budget o Patronage was common during the Union nationale r'egime (government gave appointments, awarded contracts, and distributed favors to its friends and supporters. Social Policies o Defended traditional values (rural life, Roman Catholic Church faith, French language and culture) o Believed in as little state invention as possible. o Gave grants to hospitals and universities (run by the Church) but resisted the introduction of heath insurance. o Spent money on setting up trade schools, juvenile courts and on roads.
Economic Policies o Allowed private enterprise to develop resources. American companies were given extensive rights for their constructing railways, factories, and settlements. o Companies paid low taxes o Kept minimum wage for workers of low levels. o Granted big corporations favorable terms to exploit Quebec's natural resources resulting in new factories and provided many jobs. o Favored agriculture: extended the rural electricity network, paved rural roads, provided loans to farmers and helped cooperatives. o Believed in provincial autonomy (opposed any attempts by the federal government to centralize power.) o Refused to accept big federal grants for the universities and the construction of the Trans-Canada Highway. o Set up a provincial income tax for companies in 1947 and for individuals in 1954. Opinions of Duplessis o Supporters: French businessmen and professionals (benefited from his grants and patronage) Farmers (liked him for his roads, rural electrification and political power he gave them) Corporations (for having low taxes and help in breaking strikes) Roman Catholic Church (tried to maintain the traditional system and gave grants to the institutes they operated) o Opposed: English-speaking Quebecers (voted for the Liberals and cut themselves out of any patronage) Trade unions and factory workers (dislikes his strong-arm tactics) Artists and intellectuals. Quebec 1945-1960: Growing Opposition o Duplessis had old-fashioned views that came to be questioned and opposed more. o American popular culture was very attractive. o More prosperous times allowed most people to buy goods and join the "consumer society" Duplessis disliked. o In 1952, television made the population aware of the outside world and its commercials made them want to buy more products. Opposing groups o Some French-speaking Quebecers: traditionalist policies of the ruling elite were causing Quebec's society to fall behind the times. o Wanted to participate fully in the modern economy. o Wanted to be better educated and informed. o Wanted ordinary people to have more say in political decision-making. o Opposition: creative artists, trade unions, intellectuals, neo-liberals, neo-nationalists Role of the Media o New ideas and new products spread much more quickly than in the past. o Cinemas became very popular (American movies dominated) o Newspapers increased their circulation o Television came to Quebec in 1952, allowed new leaders of opinion to spread their ideas.
Powerful means of communication was available to nearly everyone. o Television radio stations switched to news and popular music.