Describe in detail the recruitment and selection process; show detailed knowledge of the various stages involved in the recruitment and selection process: Throughout the following pages I will explain the reasons why a recruitment and selection process is necessary, the various stages within the process and the challenges human resource managers and employers face. The recruitment and selection processes are often seen as one single action. However, two clear processes are involved. Recruitment is the overall process whereby companies employ staff to fill available or new positions whereas the selection process includes a series of actions to best identify the most suitable candidate for the specific vacant post. Some of the main aims and objectives of the recruitment and selection process are to ensure that all recruitment and selection procedures meet the terms of the equal opportunities policies. If the selection process is used inappropriately it may have the potential to discriminate against certain groups, for example, young / old, gender, people with disabilities etc.

Moreover the process should also ensure that appointments are made on merit and that the candidate has the skills, qualities, abilities and experience necessary to do the job successfully. The Recruitment and Selection process consists of: - O Job requisition O Analysis O Attracting Candidates O Selection Job requisition Stage one in the recruitment and selection process is the job requisition. During this stage Human Resources should first consider if the post is actually needed as in some cases a new employee is not always the answer. For instance, some tasks may not be necessary, some tasks could be incorporated into another post while others could be completed in different ways, for example, by machine or computer, which may also save time.

In addition, the work could perhaps be done on a part-time basis, flexi-time or job share basis or even be contracted out. To distinguish the tasks required to make up the job, it is wise to invest some time in clearly defining the role and expected outputs of the post and after that try to establish the range of skills and qualities candidates will have to possess. For example, you may want to list the most important job tasks required of the post holder, the capabilities required to do the tasks and then rank them in terms of how important they are for completing the tasks. You may even consider speaking to the existing post holder because he or she should have the most practical view of the job. Failure to do this preliminary stage thoroughly can lead to a vast number of inappropriate candidates applying, and if the wrong candidate is chosen serious difficulties can come up later in the relationship. Analysis Job Analysis A Job Analysis is a very important part of the recruitment process as it provides a framework to base your decisions on.

For instance, if you decide that a third level qualification is required for a particular job then you can dismiss all application forms from candidates who are below this level. Begin specific in this way means you do not fall foul of equal opportunities policies. Job Description Now that you have decided that you require another employee it is important to get the right person for the job. Writing a job description will help the company define exactly what you want your new employee to do, and it will also help the applicants understand what they are applying for.

A good job description will set out the boundaries within which a person is to work along with the tasks and responsibilities to be undertaken, so that it gives both the employer and employee an understanding of what is excepted from both of them. It should also include the main purpose of the job and the results the person should achieve. Person Specification The employee specification should identify the qualities required by the successful candidate in order to fulfil the requirements of the job efficiently and to achieve the business objectives. These can include experience, qualifications, training, general knowledge, also skills and personal attributes.

This specification can be used as one element in the short-listing process but it can also provide help with areas such as performance appraisal reviews, establishing training and development needs and also job evaluation. Attracting Candidates Sources of recruitment Once the company has decided on the position it wants to fill and the type of candidate, there is a range of options for finding suitable applicants. Different methods will be appropriate for different jobs. There is a combination of methods, which can give you the best choice of candidate. Internal Recruitment This option can be cost effective as it makes the most of existing talent who have had first hand experience within the companies systems and procedures. In addition, it could raise staff moral.

Although there can also be disadvantages if the company has a limited number of potential candidates as it does not allow you the opportunity to bring in new people with new skills. Moreover if an internal employee is the choice the company will still have to recruit a replacement. Press advertising This can generate quick responses and it also reaches a wide range of possible applicants actively looking for a new job. However this method can be expensive and it may attract too many candidates who are not in your chosen sector. Recruitment agencies Using recruitment agencies can save a lot of time and money as they will advertise, shortlist and interview. This method can also be quicker than others as the company has access to the agency's database of potential candidates.

On the other hand, recruitment agencies can be very expensive, they may not understand exactly what the company requires and they may use limited selection methods as recruitment consultants's kills can vary. Via the Internet Using the Internet can shorten the recruitment cycle and can also be cheap depending of the site the company chooses-some companies list vacancies for posts on their own websites. Moreover it can reach a wide range of applicants 24 hours per day. Nevertheless the Internet is still not the first choice of people looking for jobs, plus, you may get a greater number of candidates that are not in the companies chosen sector.

Job Centre The Job Centre can be a low cost method of advertising a job vacancy, as their services are free of charge. It can also produce groups of candidates looking for work within 7 - 10 days and give advice in government assistance etc. However the down side is that the candidates tend not to be highly qualified and can waste a lot of time by not turning up for interviews. Designing a Job Advertisement If the company relies on job advertisements, they must be well written, be well presented and catch the eye and the attention of the type of person you wish to attract. Job advertisements do not have to be expensive to make or place in the media.

If it highlights the key features of the job this can be enough to be effective. There are some main topics, which companies should include within the job advertisements such as a Job Title; this should be a title that the candidates will understand. For instance if you use the term 'executive' in the job title is gives the impression of a management role if the job does not happen to be in management this can be misleading to the candidates. A salary range should be given as applicants want to know what salary to expect if they are successful and whether it matches their needs.

If the salary is not disclosed it could lead to going through the recruitment and selection process, offering the position to a candidate only to find they cannot accept as the salary does not suit. This can be a waste of time and money. The criteria used on the job advertisement should reflect the job description and the personal specification and as much detailed information as possible should be given to enable candidates to understand the nature of the job and the responsibilities involved so that they can determine if they are suitable for the position. Job advertisements can be used to attract candidates but it can also be used as a screening device to deter unsuitable candidates. Finally the advertisement should be written well so as to avoid potential indirect discrimination which could affect, for instance, a disabled applicant. Methods of applying for the position should be stated clearly; by letter, by telephone call or online.

Other items to include are: if a CV is necessary, who to apply to and the closing date. Selection Selection is the process of choosing the most appropriate candidate from those who apply to fill the post. The selection process should be based on the agreed job descriptions and person specifications that have been created. The selection process must be conducted as an evidence based process and candidates should be assessed against the agreed selection criteria, based on relevant knowledge, skills, competencies, experience and qualifications to perform the role as outlined in the person specification. Selection can be done through interviews, which are the most widely used technique, selection tests that involve written assignments or assessment centres, which are sometimes used for selecting managers. The selection process needs to be handled with care to avoid costs of failure to select the right candidate or legal problems arising from bad practice.

Shortlisting It is the responsibility of the recruitment department to make the appropriate arrangement for shortlisting. This should involve as many of the interviewers as possible and if this is not practical there must be a minimum of two people. Shortlisting should be based upon the application and assessed against the information contained on the job description and person specification to help make sure you can justify your decision at a later date. For example, if you interview three candidates and select one for the job, one of the other two may feel they were better qualified for the position and take action against the company. If you have the records from the selection process you will be able to justify your decision.

Interviewing Although researchers have found interviews poor at predicting the persons ability to do the job to the correct standard, (Makin and Robertson, 1986) interviews are still the most popular form of selection. When interviewing you should have the job description, the person specification and the application form. This should form the framework of the interview. The company should have a relaxed atmosphere to put the candidate at ease so it encourages them to talk, all questions asked should be clear, purposeful and relevant, for example if you were to ask a woman if they have children, this is seen as discrimination. The interviewers should allow adequate time for each interview and all interviewers should be fully trained in the recruitment and selection process.

It is imperative that a record of their information kept in case at a later stage they are ask to justify their decision in cases such as Sex Discrimination or disability discrimination. Through this the interviewer will be able to present the information to show the correct procedure and validate his or her decision. Current challenges facing Employers and Human Resource Managers. I feel the reason the recruitment and selection process has become one of the major challenges is that if company makes mistakes when selecting staff it can be very expensive.

The costs associated with recruiting the wrong staff can include the time and money wasted in the recruitment process, harm to the individuals wrongly selected for the post, lost training costs, legal or compensation implications, possible loss of goodwill from the companies existing customers or the loss of future customers. Also having to dismiss unsuitable people shortly after they are hired causes a bad atmosphere throughout a firm and frequent staff changes disrupt the departments work, which increases the costs of induction and training. One of the major challenge facing manufacturing employers is to make the best use of the skills and initiative of people working for the company as it evolves under changing conditions within the market. This may, for instance, call for mass production, which will in turn call for changes in work organisation to accommodate the large volumes of products. Challenges facing employers and Human Resource Managers consist of: O Recruitment Difficulties O Employment Law O Demographics O Technologies O Flexibility O Job Share Recruitment Difficulties Employers and Human Resource Managers can find the recruitment process within manufacturing difficult as more and more young people are steering away from industry and looking to white collar jobs which have a better working environment and better pay and conditions. So the employers and HR Managers must then put into practice a better work-life balance in order to attract more suitable candidates into the recruitment pool.

This could include higher wages, better training, promotion opportunities and healthcare benefits etc. Employers and Human Resource Manager are now also realising the need to value their existing staff and possibly re-train their current employees in a bid to keep them. However this is all at a cost. Employment law Employment law may be the Human Resource Manager's biggest challenge. Equal Opportunities Legislations have been put in place to prevent discrimination against certain groups of people examples are the Sex Discrimination Act, Race Relations Act and the Equal Pay Act.

Employers and Human Resource Managers must ensure not only through the recruitment and selection process but also throughout the employee's career that they are protected from these discriminations, which can be very time consuming if a discriminations issues arise. An example of discrimination is the Stephen Lawrence murder case where Sir William MacPherson who was investigating the murder found evidence of intuitional racism in the police force (Foot and Hook, 2002) Demographics Considerable numbers of young highly educated and skilled personnel are being attracted to more lucrative jobs outside for example Northern Ireland and local HR managers are finding it more difficult to attract the right type of personnel to vacant or new positions. Technologies Technologies are changing very rapidly in this day and age and a new skilled workforce is required. HR Mangers may find recruitment for suitably skilled people extremely difficult. The recruitment and retention of high skilled workers can have serious cost implications. Flexibility As mentioned earlier, employers and HR managers are finding it more and more difficult to find skilled workers for the manufacturing industry.

One method to overcome this problem is to offer flexi-time. Flexi-time allows employees to decide when they want their workday to start and end, so it gives them more control over their personal schedules. For instance, a woman who needs to pick up her children from school at 3.30 may use flexi-time to start at 7.30 and finish at 2.30. This can be an advantage to employers and HR managers as according to research done by Manchester Metropolitan University on a Car and Electronics Company it lowers the rate of absenteeism and overhead costs and findings show that employees are more productive.

There is also a considerable amount of work involved for managers and HR managers, such as, support for the employees who may find it difficult to adjust into the new working times. Human resource managers have also come under criticism for offering employees flexi-time, for example if one employee is permitted to work flexi-time and one it not this can cause friction within the work place. Job Share Job share occurs where two people share the duties and responsibilities of one full-time position on hourly, daily or weekly basis. Job sharing is different from part-time as with part-time only one person is responsible for the whole job. With job share the job sharers hold the responsibilities of the post jointly. This can help widen the pool of applicants and still employ skilled staff that no longer wants to work full-time.

However there are time-consuming issues for a Human Resource Manager or employer, which must be looked at, this includes the distribution of the duties and responsibilities. Even though all the duties and responsibilities should be shared, one of the particular sharers may possess a particular skill or interest, so the exact agreed working arrangement must be detailed in the terms and conditions of the sharers. Moreover, there is a recurring problem within job share at the handover period where there can be a breakdown in communication, therefore each person should know the full details required for the job they are doing. Furthermore, there is also an issue of costs and time, as there will have to be two interviews, two contracts of employment, two salaries and two sets of holidays etc. Conclusion Due to the continuing complexity of the recruitment and selection process and owing to increased legislation including, influences from the EU, equal pay, maternity leave, paternity leave, equal opportunities etc, Human Resources Managers will have more and more responsibility to ensure that they are up to date with all relevant legislation and have the necessary skills and qualifications to cope with an ever changing environment. Human Resource Management is vital to every company and industry.

It is their responsibility to make sure that employees, managers and the company are running efficiently and effectively and that the most suitable candidates are selected for vacant and new positions and that all legislation is understood and met. Bibliography Bennet, R Managing People Kogan Page Ltd 2nd Edition 1994 Bray, T The Selection Maze Golden Arrow Publications 1991 Cuming, MW The History and Practice of Personnel Management. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. 7th Edition 1993 Foot, M & Hook, C Introducing Human Resource Management. Pearson Education. 3rd Edition 2002.

Schuler, RS & Huber, VL Personal and Human Resource Management West Publishing Company 5th Edition 1993 Web Sites web web web web web

Bibliography

Bennet, R Managing People Kogan Page Ltd 2nd Edition 1994 Bray, T The Selection Maze Golden Arrow Publications 1991 Cuming, MW The History and Practice of Personnel Management.
Pearson Education. 3rd Edition 2002.
Schuler, RS & Huber, VL Personal and Human Resource Management West Publishing Company 5th Edition 1993 Web Sites web web web web web.