Research Critique Part I The ultimate goal of nursing research is the generation of an empirical knowledge base to guide nursing practice (Burns & Grove, 2003). With this goal in mind, Koniak-Griffin, Lesser, Uman, and Nyamathi, in their article "Teen Pregnancy, Motherhood, and Unprotected Sexual Activity" (2003), conducted a research study that examined the sexual behaviors and attitudes toward condom use of adolescent mothers from ethnic minority backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to critique the above research article, which will include a preliminary overview, an analyses of the title, abstract & credentials of researchers, significance of the study and its relevance to nursing, and the ethical framework. Preliminary Overview The research is a quantitative type of study which uses quasi-experimental method in collecting baseline data examined in the article and in examining the influence of theoretical variables and selected psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic factors on condom use among predominantly Latina and African American adolescent mothers (Koniak-Griffin et al., 2003). Koniak-Griffin et al. (2003) found that a number of variables from previous research studies "have been hypothesized to influence condom use in samples comprised mainly of adults and youth", however little is known about factors affecting condom use of adolescent mothers of minority background.

This is a major issue in health care due to the fact that vulnerable ethnic / racial groups and women comprise 77% of the cumulative reported Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases (CDC, 2001). This only shows that there is an urgent need for broad-based HIV / AIDS prevention efforts for adolescent mothers. The report is well-written and well-organized. The purpose of the article was clear from the beginning. There is an orderly and logical presentation of ideas with smooth transitions. Diction or word choice is also appropriate.

Although all content sections of an article are present and follow correct sequencing, I thought the authors provided an extensive introduction which might cause the readers to lose interest in reading the whole research article. Title, Abstract, & Credentials of Researchers The title is concise and reflects some but not all key elements in the study. It also does not mention the type of quantitative research used, whether it is descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, or experimental. The abstract to me is not so clear due to a lot of variables it mentioned. However, it does provide a short summary of the study's purpose, methods, and findings.

The authors are composed of a professor, an assistant professor, a research partner, and an associate dean & professor which might prove their qualifications, experience and knowledge in the subject area. They do not, however, specify their areas of specialization in nursing. Three come from various nursing schools such as UCLA School of Nursing and Florida State University, Tallahassee, and one is from a firm called Vital Research, Inc. in Los Angeles. Significance of the Study & Relevance to Practice As already mentioned earlier, the subject area is a major issue in health care due to the high susceptibility of minority women to HIV / AIDS infections and the limited knowledge available of the factors that influence them to practice protected sexual activity, such as the use of condoms. The findings of the study is relevant to nursing because it support the need for a broad-based HIV / AIDS prevention programs, probably through health promotion and patient education / teaching which are considered to be significant roles of nurses. Ethical Framework The study participants were not subjected to any physical harm or physiological stress or discomfort.

All recruitment procedures and forms used to obtain written informed consent from participants were approved by the university's institutional review board. Questionnaires were read to small groups of young women by a specially trained research assistant in classrooms of the alternative schools where the study was conducted. Privacy or confidentiality was not mentioned.