Changes of Time: The Stereotypical Images of Blacks on Television Ever since television began in 1939, African Americans have been portrayed as maids, servants or clowns. These negative perceptions started to appear in sitcoms such as in Amos and Andy, who were the stereotypical backs who never took things seriously. All those views changed during the 1970's when black sitcoms were becoming more reality based. Although blacks have been, and often still, portrayed in a negative way on TV, there has been some improvement of stereotypical images of African Americans on television. There were five stereotypical roles of blacks between 1940-1970; the Tom, Coon, Mammie, Tragic Mulatto, and the Buck (Gray Recognizing). The tom was always insulted, but kept the faith and remained generous and kind.

The coon (most used image) was always lazy, unreliable and constantly butchered his speech. The mammie was more distinguished than the coon only because of her sex. She was usually big and plump and full of heart. The tragic mulatto was fair-skinned, trying to pass for white. Always well-liked and believed that their lives could have been better if they were not biracial. The last stereotype was the buck.

He was the big, oversexed black man (Gray Recognizing). In the late 1960's, there were shows like I Spy and The Flip Wilson Show that had blacks starring in it. After, starting in 1971, shows were popping everywhere with black casts (Changing Image 76). Sanford and Son appeared on NBC in January 14, Alba 2 1972, to replace another show (Booth 26).

The show took place in South Central California, where Fred Sanford and his son Lamont lived and owned a junk yard. Fred was satisfied with his little business. However, Lamont, want something bigger and better. Fred would do anything to keep his son from abandon him and the business.

Every time Lamont threatened to leave, Fred would do his famous act and fake a heart attack and start moaning to his late wife, "I'm coming, Elizabeth, I'm coming". Lamont never fooled by his father's scheme, but he did love him and, despite what he said about his future, really wouldn't have leave him (Network and Cable). They were rated the 6th most popular show during the 1971-72 season, and 10th during the 1976-77 season. The stereotype was still there, but realistic views were appearing on the show of realistic lives of black men. After Sanford and Son cam on air, others followed.

Good Times appeared on 1974 (Ingram Good Times) Florida and James Evans were lower middle-class blacks, with their three children in a high-rise ghetto on the south side of Chicago. J.J., an amateur painter, was the oldest, Thelma was a year younger than he, and Michael was five years younger than she. James, who was always in and out of jobs, made their lives difficult at times, but there was always plenty of love in the family. The famous catch phrase from J. J", Dy-No-Mite" became very popular in the mid 1970's (Ingram Good Times). During the first season, Good Times was the 17th most popular show (20 Most). Many black families related to them. This was the first black show that had controversial issues such as gun control, murder, and drug use (Network and Cable).

These were topics previously unexplored on television. Good times was one of the most original shows on television its time. Alba 3 The Jeffersons were seen often on All in the Family from 1972-1975. The Jeffersons was an extremely popular TV show from the 70's and 80's. It was about a black family making it to the top in New York City. George Jefferson, was a successful dry-cleaner, with seven stores.

He and his wife Louise, or We ezy, started out with nothing, living with George's mother. They moved to a house in Queens once Georges business hit big. As he became more successful, they moved, with their son Lionel, into the famous "dee-luxe apartment in the sky", . They decided they needed a maid, and hired a black maid.

Her wise-cracking humor made the show that much better. The best friends of the Jeffersons were the Willies, an interracial couple (Network and Cable). The Jeffersons had in its show what no other show had. Many other shows had a few episodes with interracial relationships, yet, The Jeffersons had a interracial couple as supporting actors on the show. There were funny episodes, light episodes, and ones that almost made you cry. The Jeffersons wasn't just a comedy.

It was a show that taught America, and especially blacks, that if the tried, they could achieve anything. The Jeffersons were in the top 20 for seven years (20 Most). Now that the eighties were entering, there was a new stereotype of blacks. They were no longer the croons, but now, people were viewing blacks as lower-class, yet still happy people (Adjusting 2). There was a new image blacks had to confront and defeat. In the late 70's to the early 80's, there was a famous icon and saying that came form one Pint-sized little boy.

The boy was from an interracial show named Difrent Strokes. 8-year-old Arnold with his famous, What chu talkin about Willis, and his 12-year-old brother Willis were two black kids from Harlem who found themselves suddenly in the lap of luxury. Their dying mother, a housekeeper for wealthy Philip Drummond, had taken from her employer the promise that he would look after her Alba 4 boys when she passed away. It didn't matter that there were endless double takes when the rich, white Philip Drummond, president of the huge corporation Trans Allied, Inc. introduced the two spunky black kids as his "sons". .

Also in the household was Kimberly, his 13-year-old daughter and the new, scatterbrained housekeeper, Mrs. Garret. There was always plenty of love around. Everybody learned little lessons about what was right and wrong in each episode. The show also tackled serious issues such as child abuse and the dangers of hitch-hiking (Network and Cable). There was a huge controversy over the interracial relationships between the two boys and Philip. Critics protested that the show wasnt realistic enough.

But in a study performed by US News and World Report, revealed that there was an increase of interracial adoption up 20% (57). Other Shows followed Difrent Strokes such as Webster. In 1984, The Cosby Show appeared on NBC. The Huxtable residence, in New York City, where Cliff (an obstetrician) also maintained his office.

He and his wife Clair, a legal aid attorney, had five children. Sondra, the oldest daughter was a senior at Princeton University during the first season; Denise and Theo were the know-it-all teenagers; Vanessa the rambunctious 8-year old; and Rudy the adorable and mischievous little girl (Network and Cable). The family held values and were proud to show their ethnic and social backgrounds. There was a positive approach to family life, values and standards (Changing Image 80). The Cosby Show has been watched by more people than any other situation comedy in the history of television. Having won countless awards and enjoying record-breaking success, the program has been ranked number one more times than any other TV series since its premiere (Crenshaw Cosby).

Alba 5 People argued that The Cosby Show was attempting to break the traditional way of black lives, and that it didnt reflect the typical black family (Adjusting 4). However, the shows main goal was to abolish those exact stereotypes (Crenshaw Cosby). It was true that the show didnt copy the repetitious images people saw on the news, but it did show the common black middle-class family of the 80's. In actuality, the show represented many black professionals in America (Crenshaw Cosby). Not only did they make an effort to eliminate the stereotypes people saw of blacks, but purposely created positive roles of blacks. The 90's perspective was different from how it was in the 60's.

The Cosby Show changed the stereotypical view of the black family on television. It introduced real African American on TV. Other shows cam along the 90's that were affected by The Cosby Show. The Fresh Prince Of Bel Air premiered on NBC on September 10, 1990 (20 Most).

The series is about a young man named Will from Philadelphia who gets sent by his mother to live with his aunt and her family in Bel Air, California. Will has to adjust to a totally different lifestyle and to having new relatives around. He now has an aunt, uncle, and three cousins (Network and Cable). Having a black family in upper-class but still humble was a huge sensation. Fresh Prince had many similarities of the Cosby Show.

Both were of well-to-do families that were proud of their heritage. Fresh Prince had episodes where you couldnt stop laughing, and some episodes that had you on teh verge of you seats. They delt with things that happened to everyday people from trying to make the cheer squad to buglury. It was number 10 on the Top 20 shows in the 70's, 80's and 90's in 1992-1993 season, and number 6 in 1993-1994 season. Family Matters showed focus on a middle-class black family living in Alba 6 Chicago. The family included a blustery father, Carl, a Chicago cop; Harriette, his sharp-tongued wife and Eddie, Laura and Judy, their loud and crazy children.

Hanging around is Grandma Winslow, Carl's and Harriette's recently widowed sister, Rachel, who moved in with her infant son, Richie. The real star of the show emerged halfway through the first season. Steve Uriel, the ultimate nerd, was a neighborhood kid with a serious crush on an uninterested Laura. With his oversized glasses, hiked-up pants and high-pitched voice (Network and Cable). They were portraying the average black family. Today, many black roles avoid much of the racial stereotyping that was characteristic of shows.

There is a definite change in Americans view of the typical black family, and widely opened the doors for other shows that came along after the 1970's. Although there still are stereotyping on minorities (especially blacks), there has been improvements that will help the next decade to take away stereotypical images bit by bit.

Bibliography

20 Most Popular TV Shows In the 1970's and 1980's.
Nielson Media Research. July 26, 2000.
web Allen, Bonnie. The 1980's: A Look Back.
Essence. Dec 1989: 82-84.
Blacks on TV: Adjusting the Image. New Perspectives. Summer 1985: 2-5.
Booth, Stephanie. Redd Hot. TV Guide March 3-10 1975: 26-28.
The Changing Image of the Black Family on TV. Journal of Pop Culture. Fall 1998: 75-85.
Crenshaw, Anthony. The Cosby Show Changes the way Blacks are Viewed. July 20, 2000.
web Gray, Steven F. Recognizing Stereotypical Images of African Americans in Television and Movies. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. July 20, 2000.
web Ingram, Billy. Good Times (They Werent). TV Party. July 25, 2000.
web The Network and Cable TV Guide. July 27, 2000.
web TVs Disappearing Color line. US News and World Report. July 13 1987: 56-57.