Training programs aim to promote changes in the body, which will improve a certain aspect of performance in a specific activity. The major types of training that can affect physical performance include aerobic training, strength training and flexibility training. Each type of training needs to be incorporated into the training program if the improvement in performance is to be maximised. The activity below examines how the principles of training relate to the types of training for a 400 m runner. It focuses on a training program to develop the energy systems, strength and flexibility for a 400-metre runner.

Click on a star below (training type) and the principles of training will appear. For each principle of training there is a choice of two or three answers which relate to training for the 400 metres. Select your answer by clicking inside a box. If you are correct the box will change colour. 1.

Progressive overload: 4 x 100 m sprints with 30 seconds rest between intervals. going to 5 x 120 m with 25 second rest between intervals. 2. Specificity: Running as fast as possible for 5 x 1-minute intervals to mimic the time taken for 400 m run. 3. Reversibility: Running as fast as possible for 5 x 1-minute intervals to mimic the time taken for 400 m run. 4.

Variety: Training program includes: ∑ hill running ∑ interval training on track ∑ fart lek training 5. Training thresholds: training at between 75% and 90% of maximum heart rate over short periods of time 6. light jog followed by stretching of whole body, focus on legs, then by running with a slow build up of pace until full pace is achieved. Reverse for cool down n the following table, the principles of training are listed down the left-hand side. For each principle, there are three examples that could be applied to an athlete training for the 400-metres. Select the correct answer by clicking on a box. Student activity Choose the correct example for each principle of training.

1 2 3 Progressive overload 15+ weight resistance, complete 2 sets of 15 repetitions with minimal time between sets. Going to 15+ weight resistance, complete 3 sets of 30 repetitions with minimal time between sets. 15+ weight resistance, complete 3 sets of 30 repetitions with minimal rest / work intervals. Going to 15+ weight resistance, complete 2 sets of 25 repetitions with no time between sets. 10 repetitions at maximum weight, complete 2 sets of 8 repetitions with 3 minutes between sets. 10 repetitions maximum weight, complete 2 sets of 6 repetitions with 5 minutes between sets.

Specificity Resistance training involving lateral arm raises, bicep curls, bench press, push-ups and upright rowing. Resistance training using activities such as half squats, calf raises, sit-ups, leg curls and back raises. Training using activities such as push-ups, chin-ups, sit-ups and vertical jumps. Reversibility The athlete does little resistance training for 2 weeks and cannot complete 3 sets of squats due to fatigue. The athlete is able to maintain training program despite being injured for more than 3 weeks. The athlete's performance has improved significantly after a 4-week lay off due to excessive fatigue.

Variety Training involves circuit work twice a week but varying the amount of time for each session. Training involves the use of free weights performed in time to music. Training involves the use of free weights, circuit training and weight machines. Warm up / cool down Training can begin with lightweights, slowly building up until they are warm, then full weights are used. Cool-down should involve stretching.

Training can begin with a 5-minute ride on an exercise bike, followed by stretching. Cool-down should also involve stretching and another gross motor activity. A warm-up and cool-down is not required for weight training due to the controlled nature of the activity. C: Flexibility training for a 400 m runner Back to student activity In the following table, the principles of training are listed down the left-hand side. For each principle, there are three examples of how that could be applied to an athlete training for the 400-metres. Student activity Choose the correct example for each principle of training 1 2 Progressive overload Recording "joint angle measures" then increasing: the angle of the joint with a PNF stretch the length of time each stretch is held.

Maintaining high flexibility levels concentrating on the whole body. Specificity The program concentrates on the muscles of the trunk and upper body i.e. abdominals, back, shoulders and arms. Stretching focuses on the major muscle groups of the legs and the trunk i.e. hamstring quadriceps, calf muscles, abdominals and back. Reversibility The athlete's range of movement remains constant regardless of the amount of flexibility training undertaken. After 3 weeks of heavy weight training the athlete's range of the movement falls by 5%. Variety The athlete creates variety in their flexibility program by undertaking it both on the track and in the gym.

The athlete uses ballistic stretches, PNF stretching and static stretching to assist with variety. Warm up / cool down The athlete undertakes flexibility training without a preliminary gross-motor activity. Prior to training the athlete does a gross-motor activity such as jogging or exercise-bike riding, to allow muscles and joints to warm up. The NSW HSC Online (c) site is bound by the responsibilities outlined in the disclaimer.