In the Yalta and Potsdam conference 1945 there was an agreement over the 'spheres of influence'. There was a separation between Soviet communism and capitalist America. USSR occupied East Europe and the West occupied Greece and Turkey. This caused great tension between the 'super powers'. At the end of world war II the 'super powers' came to conflict, U.S. A and the Soviets. There was great suspicion and hostility between the two, this became known as the 'Cold War'!
A silent war as there was no physical violence, but many words were spoken on both parts, and conflict grew. The cartoon in source A 1 is referring to the 'Arm's Race'. This is a primary source which could be seen as biased, as it has been published by a British new's magazine, so therefore it is a british interpretation of the situation at that time, and as Britain was an ally to America there view may not of been all round truthful. The cartoon is showing the British cartoonist's opinion of the order of which the countries are leading in conflict. Eisenhower and Khruschev are leading followed by MacMillan and De Gaulle. The expression's portrayed on the leader's face's suggest's high tension between them all.
The Arm's Race was nothing to do with winning, but more to do with gaining a status of power. This is a useful source as it give's you a better prospective on the situation between the 'Super Powers' during that time. A photograph of a lockheed U-2 reconnaissance plane used by the US on high altitude photographic missions over soviet territory is pictured in source A 2. It is a primary source that is not referenced, and show's tension rising, as the US must of felt suspicious and hostile toward's the Soviets, to feel the need to extend to these length's to watch over soviet territory. The flight path of the U-2 plane, like the one Francis Gary Powers took, is shown in source A 3. Again it is a primary source, It is reliable as it show's the conjecture of the flight path that must of been taken, but the plane crashed so the full flight was not completed, therefore the full flight cannot be proven.
The US denied all allegation's of having any part in the U-2 flight plane. This forced the tension to rise. A 'Summit Conference' was arranged to occur in Paris. It was convened to discuss Germany, and the possibility of reuniting the country.
In source A 4 it show's an account of events that occured during the conference. It is a secondary source as it was written after the actual event. The conference went drastically wrong, the USSR demanded an apology of the U.S. A, as a result of the U-2 plane incident, U.S. A refused, Khruschev left on the first day. Tension arose between the two to an exter me extent, due to this minor disagreement the conference was over shadowed, leaving the situation in Germany still unsolved, no agreement was met. After the 'Summit Conference' a speech was made by Khruschev as shown in source A 5.
This is a primary source, and could be seen as biased as it is purely Khruschev's opinion. His word's should not be fully trusted as he has a great sense of anger and hostility toward's America, following the events that occured at the conference. The source could be un-reliable but still usefull. The source's show how America put themselve's at great risk of confrontation with the USSR, after sending the U-2 plane into Soviet territory. The consequences of this plan must of been clear to America, before their action's were pursued. Tension was left lingering between the two countries.
The separation between communism and capitalism was becoming clear between the two. A Statement made by Eisenhower when speaking to the press on the 7th of April 1945 is Reflecting the domino theory, which is shown in source B 1, it is a primary source. This reflect's the American view on communism, possibly suggesting his plan's on stopping communist's advance's. The suggestion of this link's into Truman's idea of containment. The American President Truman said that, the world was being divided into free, democratic countrie's and un-democratic communist state's.
Truman promised help for any people who wanted to resist communism and immediate help to anti-communist government's. President Eisenhower shared these views on stopping communism, the Soviet's being communist did not agree, tension was on the increase. A map that indicate's communist controlled area's during most of the war is shown in source B 2. It is not referenced therefore it is not possible to state if it is from the American or the Soviet side. In September 1945 Ho Chi Minh lead Vietnam against France and declared Vietnam a Independant communist free state, but by 1954 the independance of Vietnam had split in half. North vs. South, Communist vs. Capitalist.
The North was lead by Ho Chi Minh, it was a communist state and had the capital city Hanoi. The South was lead by president Ngo Dinh Diem, it was a capitalist state and had the capital city of Saigon. In 1959 South Vietnam rebel's. The Viet Cong, fight to join North and South under the Communist National Liberation Front. The separated state's come into major dis-agreement. Vice President Johnson adressed President Kennedy following a visit to Vietnam in May 1961 as shown in source B 3.
It is a primary source showing the report President Kennedy was adressed with by Johnson. This resulted in Kennedy sending advisor's into South Vietnam. Johnson suggested helping South Vietnam to defend themselve's. He state's clearly who America should back 'If America Does not stand behind President Diem (of South Vietnam), we would say to the world that we don't stand by our friend's'.
The primary source in B 4 is a text written by Stephen. E. Ambrose. In the text it state's 'Kennedy wanted to be able to respond to communist aggression at any level!'. This signify's Kennedy defending communism. Kennedy built up a counterinsurgency force, to fight against any rising power's. This force was called the Green Beret's. They gave advice to local troop's and helped them to train.
Kennedy got personally involved when he supervised the selection of new equiptment. He did this so he could take the credit for the good action's performed by soldier's, Kennedy felt he could 'save the world!'. American helicopters were used by South Vietnamese troop's during the early part of the vietnam war. A helicopter bein occupied by Vietnamese troop's is pictured in source B 4 II, this a primary source which is not referenced, so it is not made apparent who took it. It reflect's the influence from Kennedy, where he got personally involved and chose equiptment to be used including helicopter's. Also there is a Vietnamese man on board reflecting the influence of the Green Beret's, where they trained the Vietnamese.
The secondary source B 4 is not to far from the end of the war, so the information could still be biased or unclear. It is a piece written by J.M. Roberts and taken from 'The Hutchinson History Of The World' in 1976. By 1960 the Viet Cong had won control over most of South Vietnam. In the text it mention's a phrase a 'momentous decision' that intensified tension between the two rival's. It also mention's that a few year's later it led to the situation Truman had hoped to avoid, U.S. A became part of a major war in Asia and in the end it led to the loss of 50,000 American lives. There became a major obsession with counting body's to tally the amount of lives lost, it became known as the 'Body Count'.
It gave the rival's a great sense of justification of their involvement knowing the amount of lives that were lost on America's part. The political situation intensified and became more serious when Kennedy took South Vietnam's side and got personally involved, it angered the soviets, so they put up their defence's and fought back. Berlin now became one of the focal point's of their battle, a wall separated the East from the West. Source D 1 show's a table of statistic's. It show's the amount of refugee's fleeing from the East to the West during the period of 1955-1965.
One of the first thing's made apparent in the table, is the dramatic de-crease in the figure's of people fleeing in 1961-1965. The de-crease occured when the Berlin wall had been built, which now divided the East from the West. There is no reference of whether the statistics came from the West or the East side, so it is not clear if it could be biased. It is a primary source and is very usefull for showing the full impact of the building of Berlin Wall. Khruschev and Kennedy came face to face at the Vienna Summit Conference, just two month's before the wall was built, as shown in source D 2.
It is a photograph of the two leader's together. It is a primary source and is not referenced, it could be a personal photo rather than a new's paper photograph. It is an intresting source as Kennedy and Khruschev are rival enemy's and yet they have agreed to meet and sit so close to one another. This indicate's civil attitude's on both part's.
Following the Vienna conference there was a report written by Walter La quer, it is his interpretation of event's, shown in Source D 2 II, a secondary source. Kennedy is faced with an ultimatum put forth to him by Khruschev. Khruschev was out to frighten Kennedy. There is alot of pressure on Kennedy, as he is in the light of Khruschev's prior experience.
Kennedy is a young president and may find it hard to over power Khruchev's intellectual knowledge and experience. The source show's soviet's weakening under the pressure. Kennedy portray's a sombre, worried attitude to the situation, when the conference ended in disagreement and Kennedy left. This portray's Kennedy as a 'level heade'd' leader, he is worried about the predicament he is in and show's great concern.
Kennedy left the conference knowing he should approach the Russian's with caution, but with firmness, so they understand his reasoning. Kennedy's view and personal feeling's toward's the situation in Berlin are displayed in source D 3. It show's Kennedy's intent. He show's knowledge of Berlin proving he understand's who and what he is defending.
Kennedy make's an error by mentioning Stalingrad in his speech. Stalingrad was one of Russia's greatest battle's, this could anger the Russian's and raise the tension. He use's the threat of war 'Any dangerous spot is tenable if men-brave men-will make it so'. This speech was made by Kennedy on july 25th 1961, a little after the conference.
This illustrate's Kennedy's firmness with the Russian's. He use's the subtle threat of war just after mentioning Stalingrad, to capture the attention of the Russian's, he use's the knowledge he learnt from the conference and portray's it in his speech using firmness Two month's later the Berlin wall was built. Source D 4 show's the building of the wall. The photo was taken on the Berlin wall building date, August 17th 1961.
The photograph was taken from the West side picturing an East Berliner. This is a primary source. Following the building of the wall Kennedy visited Berlin three year's later in june 1963. Source D 4 II is a photograph of Kennedy visiting the wall on that date. This is a primary source, Kennedy has a stand built up above the wall, so he can look down on to it and over to the soviet side of communism. This show's propoganda, with Kennedy making his stand higher than the wall show's him portraying the firm attitude that he is higher, bigger and better than the communist's, you may try to break the West but we will allway's rise above!
Whilst on his visit in 1963 Kennedy made a speech, shown in source D 5. It is a primary source, and an anti-communist speech. The basic nature of the speech is Kennedy emphasising the point that Berlin has been wrecked by communism, Berlin as a city has been ruined. He use's the repetition of 'Let them come to Berlin'. This is a very effective use of speech, as it emphasises the main point. It create's a very powerfull speech.
He also use's the, now famous, phrase 'Eich Bin Ein Berliner!', meaning 'I am a Berliner!'. This is Kennedy's way of portraying the idea that he has become at one with Berlin, he is the symbol of the west. In conclusion to my essay I personally think due to political and personal differences between the rival's, led them to part further and not regain their difference's. All source's reflect the reason of conflict between the two. Berlin lay separated, family's parted and a defiant split between communist and capitalist. Their difference's could not be over ridden as pride and leadership lingered over both leader's.
The cold war intensified during 1961-3 due to under lying problems between the two, the sense of suspicion and hostility grew due to the event of the Berlin wall, the war in Vietnam and prior events such as the Vienna Summit Conference, and tension intensified. In 1963 Diem was murdered and Kennedy assi nated, 1973 a ceasefire declared not the end of the war, but a settlement of peace. 1975 Saigon fall's. The war had ended.