When some time is allowed to pass after the extinction process, an organism will usually perform the operant again when placed in a situation in which the operant had been reinforced previously. Spontaneous recovery of learned responses occurs in operant conditioning as well as in classical conditioning. If the operant is reinforced at this time, it quickly regains its former strength. Spontaneous recovery of extinguished operant's suggests that they are inhibited or suppressed by the extinction process and not lost permanently. Observational learning occurs when a person or an animal uses observation of another's actions and their consequences to guide their own future actions. The person being observed is referred to as a model.
For this reason, observational learning is also referred to as modeling. Observational learning involves four stages, attention, retention, reproduction and motivation-reinforcement. Attention is when the learner observers the actions of the model (The higher the status of the model the more attention the learner will pay and the closer their imitations will be to the models actions). Retention occurs when the learner retains in their memory what they have just observed. Reproduction is when the learner will reproduce or imitate the actions of the model that they have just observed. Reproduction is when the learner reproduces or imitates what they have just observed.
Motivation-reinforcement can come in various ways. External reinforcement, through praise for doing something well, self-reinforcement, through the learner setting themselves a goal in which they must achieve, and vicarious self-reinforcement, in which the learner can see others joy in their achieving this goal. An example of observational learning is when a person begins to learn a dance. The person will observe their dancing instructor (attention) when they are shown the dance moves.
They then retain the information that they have just observed. The person will then reproduce / imitate the dance moves that they have just been shown (reproduction). The motivation reinforcement can come from praise from the instructor or fellow dancers, or seeing others dance well and wanting to be able to do the same. An emotion is a state of felling that can have physiological, situational, and cognitive components. Although no two people experience emotions in exactly the same way, it is possible to generalize.
Fear, for example, involves predominantly sympathetic arousal, the perception of a threat, and beliefs to the effect that one is in danger. Anger may involve both sympathetic and parasympathetic arousal, a frustrating or provocative situation, and belief that the provocateur ought to be paid back. Such emotions are learned in childhood. On the basis of Bridges observations of babies, she proposed that newborns experience one emotion diffuse excitement.
By 3 month, tow other emotions have differentiated from this general state of excitement a negative emotion (distress) and a positive emotion (delight). By six months, fear, disgust, and anger will have developed from delight. Jealousy develops from distress, and joy develops from delight both during the second year. Alan Sroufe has advanced Bridges theory, focusing on the ways in which cognitive development may provide the basis for emotional development.
Jealousy, for example, cannot become differentiated without some understanding of the concept of possession. Anger usually results from situations in which our intentions are thwarted. For example, 7-month old infants show anger when a biscuit is almost placed in their mouths and then removed. It may be that the development of concepts of intentionality and of rudimentary causality precede the differentiation of anger. Development of fear of strangers to the perceptual-cognitive capacity to discriminate the faces of familiar people from those of unfamiliar people..