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  • 802 11 Specification Family
    1,075 words
    Wireless Protocols Jason D. Knight As with all data transmission technologies, protocols govern the manner in which information is transferred between stations. A protocol is simply an agreed upon standard that all parties use to ensure that different devices can communicate with each other. Wireless protocols can be discussed on their own, and where they fit in the OSI protocol suite. For the sake of clarity, we will limit our discussion to wireless network implementations. Wireless protocols t...
  • Transmission Medium 10 Figure 1 8 Regenerating
    11,136 words
    Contents 1. Introduction 1.1 The Fundamental Problem of Communications 51.2 The Transmission Medium-Attenuation Constraints 91.3 The Transmission Medium- Interference Constraints 121.4 The Transmission Medium- Bandwidth Constraints 131.5 DSL Keeps Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Copper Cable Attractive as a Premises Transmission Medium 181.6 A Brief History of DSL 211.7 Program 222. xDSL Modems: Fundamentals and Flavors 2.1 The Simple DSL Transceiver 242.2 The Many Flavors of DSL 28 2.2. 1 IDSL 28...
  • Technique One Data Frame At A Time
    1,169 words
    In a transmission system, any inconvenient may arise such as overflow of data, error, lost or damage frame. Therefore, many functions have been established in order to assure the reliability and efficiency of data transmission. These functions are flow control, error control and error detection which is defined in the Data Link layer. Many problems have been occurred during the development of networking in the past. Developers kept asking questions during their research to find out the solutions...
  • Digital To Analogue Signals Modulation As Pstn
    692 words
    Introduction to the PSTN The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) was designed to enable analogue (sound) communication between telephones. It is a well-established network with extensive infrastructure providing universal coverage. PSTN is a circuit switched network. When a customer requests a service path, an electronic connection is established between their telephone connection and the local switching exchange (the local loop). The local exchange is interconnected to a network of main ci...
  • Data Selection Inputs And The Converted Output
    1,267 words
    Pre lab 7: 1. (a) A D flip-flop using 5 NAND gates (b) A D flip-flop using 4 NAND gates (c) Using P spice he following outputs are obtained for both the D flip-flops constructed in a and b. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARALLEL & SERIAL DATA: There are two methods of transmitting digital data. These methods are parallel and serial transmissions. In parallel data transmission, all bits of the binary data are transmitted simultaneously. For example, to transmit an 8-bit binary number in parallel from one un...
  • Station On The Traditional Lan
    560 words
    Traditional local area networks, such as Ethernet and Token Ring, use a connectionless or unreliable approach when sending information across the network. Each client is connected to the network by an adapter card, which has a driver, and above that driver is a protocol driver, such as TCP / IP. The protocol driver bundles information into frames of varying size, and gives each bundle an appropriate header. Then, when the wire is available, the data packets are shipped off to be individually rou...

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