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  • Diphtheria Toxin
    2,594 words
    Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) Corynebacteria are Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria related to the Actinomycetes. They do not form spores or branch as do the actinomycetes, but they have the characteristic of forming irregular shaped, club-shaped or V-shaped arrangements in normal growth. They undergo snapping movements just after cell division which brings them into characteristic arrangements resembling Chinese letters. The genus Corynebacterium consists of a div...
  • Helper T Cells
    1,953 words
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus The content of this paper is whether or not mutations undergone by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and allow it to survive in the immune system. The cost of treating all persons with AIDS in 1993 in the United States was $7.8 billion, and it is estimated that 20,000 new cases of AIDS are reported every 3 months to the CDC. The question dealing with how HIV survives in the immune system is important, not only in the search for a cure for the virus and its inescapable...
  • Islet Cell Transplants
    715 words
    Sheldon 1 Mike Sheldon Paul Mcgowan English 1026, May 2001 DIABETES In 1921, Canadian researchers isolated insulin from dog pancreases and discovered that the hormone is essential to controlling blood sugar. Given by injection, insulin reversed wasting in diabetic children and extended their lives. Dramatic as its effects are, however, insulin isn't a cure for diabetes. People with the disorder must monitor their blood sugar closely and take insulin injections to reduce the risk of nerve damage ...
  • Tissue Of The Lymphatic System
    534 words
    The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System is very important. It helps with the Cardiovascular system, and our immune systems. The Lymphatic System is made up of two semi-independent parts. One is a network of lymphatic vessels. The other part is various lymphoid tissues and organs all over the body. The functions of the Lymphatic System transporting fluids that have escaped from the blood vascular system, and the organs house phagocytic cells and lymphocytes. Lymphatic vessels are an elaborate s...
  • Of Vertebrate Animals In Innate Immunity
    1,231 words
    Evolution of Immunity and the Invertebrates " Article Summery' Name: 'Immunity and the Invertebrates' Periodical: Scientific American Nov, 1996 Author: Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht Pages: 60 - 71 Total Pages Read: 9 The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he inserted a foreign object through it's membrane, tiny ce...
  • Foreign By A Body's Immune System
    787 words
    The Immune System The immune system is a group of cells, molecules, and tissues that help defend the body against diseases and other harmful invaders. The immune system provides protection against a variety of potentially damaging substances that can invade the body. These substances include disease-causing organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. The body's ability to resist these invaders is called immunity. A key feature of the immune system is its ability to destroy foreig...
  • Number And Activity Of Natural Killer Cells
    1,882 words
    Humor and Healing: The Mind-Body Connection " As it is not proper to cure the eyes without the head, nor the head without the body; so neither is it proper to cure the body without the soul. ' -Socrates (Cousins, 56) The word, to heal, comes from the root word 'helen' which means to make whole. Bringing together the body, mind and spirit can be healing. The word humor itself is a word of many meanings. The root of the word is 'um or' meaning liquid or fluid (Moyers, 221). In the Middle Ages, hum...
  • Tlr 2 And Tlr 4 Signal Ling
    1,941 words
    Cellular Basis Of Disease: Why has the discovery of Toll-like receptors revolutionized our understanding of how the innate immune system works, and what is the therapeutic potential? The body has two immune systems: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. Adaptive, or acquired, immunity refers to antigen-specific defence mechanisms that take several days to become protective and are designed to react with and remove a specific antigen. This is immunity develops throughout life. ...
  • Cd 4 Helper T Cell
    1,770 words
    The immune system is composed of many interdependent cell types that collectively protect the body from bacterial, parasitic, fungal, viral infections and from the growth of tumor cells. Many of these cell types have specialized functions. The cells of the immune system can engulf bacteria, kill parasites or tumor cells, or kill viral-infected cells. Often, these cells depend on the T helper subset for activation signals in the form of secretions formally known as, lympho kines, or more specific...
  • Strategy For An Hiv Vaccine
    1,212 words
    HIV vaccine is possible. When HIV was identified as the cause of AIDS in 1984, researchers famously predicted that a preventive vaccine was right around the corner. Of course, it turned out that the task was not so easy, as in the early days of the epidemic, very little was understood about the virus. Yet in the time since, we have learned much more. In fact, we know now more about HIV / AIDS than other diseases against which vaccines have been developed. Researchers are taking clues from the wa...

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